Senin, 23 Januari 2012

CONTOH TEXT NARRATIVE

Narrative Text adalah teks yang isinya merupakan cerita atau kisah tentang sesuatu. Contoh narrative text: cerita rakyat (folktale), cerita binatang (fable), Legenda (legend), cerita pendek (short story), dan sejenisnya. Di dalamnya terdapat konflik/puncak masalah yang diikuti dengan penyelesaian. Fungsi utama teks ini adalah untuk berkisah atau menghibur pembaca.
Ciri-ciri narrative text:
1. Generic Structure:
  • Orientation: berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana)
  • Complication: Berisi puncak konflik/masalah dalam cerita. Sebuah cerita boleh memiliki complication lebih dari satu.
  • Resolution: Pemecahan masalah. Bisa berakhir dengan kegembiraan (happy ending) bisa pula berakhir dengan kesedihan (sad ending).
Catatan:
Terkadang juga susunannya (generic structure): Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution dan Reorientation. Untuk “Evaluation” dan “Reorientation” merupakan optional; bisa ada bisa tidak. Evaluation berisi penilaian/evaluasi terhadap jalannya cerita atau konflik. Sedangkan Reorientation berisi penyimpulan isi akhir cerita.
2. Grammatical features menggunakan tenses “past”
3. Sering menggunakan kata penghubung waktu (temporal conjunction), misalnya: once upon a time, one day, long time ago, …
Contoh Narrative Text:
Ø Timun Mas
ONCE upon a time, not far from a jungle, lived husband and a wife. They were farmers. They were diligent farmers and always worked hard on the paddy fields. They had been married for many years and still not have a child yet. Everyday they prayed and prayed for a child.
One night, while they were praying, a giant passed their house. The giant heard they pray. “Don’t worry farmers. I can give you a child. But you have to give me that child when she is 17 years old,” said the giant.
The farmers were so happy. They did not think about the risk of losing their child later and agree to take the offer. Later, the giant gave them a bunch of cucumber seeds. The farmers planted them carefully. Then the seeds changed into plants.
Not longer after that, a big golden cucumber grew from plants. After it had ripe, the farmers picked and cut it. They were very surprised to see beautiful girl inside the cucumber. They named her Timun Mas or Golden Cucumber. Years passed by and Timun Mas has changed into a beautiful girl.
On her 17th birthday, Timun Mas was very happy. However, the parents were very sad. They knew they had to keep their promise to the giant but they also did not want to lose their beloved daughter. “My daughter, take this bag. It can save you from the giant,” said the father. “What do you mean, Father? I don’t understand,” said Timun Mas.
Right after that, the giant came into their house. “Run Timun Mas. Save your life!” said the mother. The giant was angry. He knew the farmers wanted to break their promise. He chased Timun Mas away. The giant was getting closer and closer.
Timun Mas then opened the bag and threw a handful of salt. It became sea. The giant had to swim to cross the sea. Later, Timun Mas threw some chilly. It became a jungle with trees. The trees had sharp thorns so they hurt the giant.
However, the giant was still able to chase Timun Mas. Timun Mas took her third magic stuff. It was cucumber seeds. She threw them and became cucumber field. But the giant still could escape from the field. Then it was the last magic stuff she had in the bag. It was a shrimp paste, terasi. She threw it and became a big swamp.
The giant was still trying to swim the swamp but he was very tired. Then he was drowning and died. Timun Mas then immediately went home. The farmers were so happy that they finally together again.***
THE LEGEND OF THE CANDY CANE
A candy maker in Indiana wanted to make a candy that would be a witness, so he made the Christmas Candy Cane. He incorporated several symbols for the birth, ministry, and death of Jesus Christ.
He began with a stick of pure white, hard candy. White to symbolize the Virgin Birth and the sinless nature of Jesus, and hard to symbolize the Solid Rock, the foundation of the church, and firmness of the promises of God.
The candy maker made the candy in the form of a “J” to represent the precious name of Jesus, who came to earth as our Savior. It also represents the staff of the “Good Shepherd” with which He reaches down into the ditches of the world to lift out the fallen lambs who, like all sheep, have gone astray.
Thinking that the candy was somewhat plain, the candy maker stained it with red stripes. He used the tree small stripes to show the stripes of the scourging Jesus received by which we are healed. The large red stripe was for the blood shed by Jesus on the Cross so that we could have the promise of eternal life, if only we put our faith and trust in Him. Unfortunately, the candy became known as a Candy Cane – a meaningless decoration seen at Christmas time. But the meaning is still there for those who “have eyes to see and ears to hear”.


ROMEO AND JULIET ROMANTIC STORY
In the town of Verona there lived two families, the Capulets and the Montagues. They engaged in a bitter feud. Among the Montagues was Romeo, a hot-blooded young man with an eye for the ladies. One day, Romeo attended the feast of the Capulets’, a costume party where he expected to meet his love, Rosaline, a haughty beauty from a well-to-do family. Once there, however, Romeo’s eyes felt upon Juliet, and he thought of Rosaline no more.
The vision of Juliet had been invading his every thought. Unable to sleep, Romeo returned late that night to the Juliet’s bedroom window. There, he was surprised to find Juliet on the balcony, professing her love for him and wishing that he were not a “Montague”, a name behind his own. “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” Romeo was ready to deny his name and professed his love. The two agreed to meet at nine o-clock the next morning to be married.
Early the next morning, Romeo came to Friar Lawrence begging the friar to marry him to Juliet. The Friar performed the ceremony, praying that the union might someday put an end to the feud between the two families. He advised Romeo kept the marriage a secret for a time.
On the way home, Romeo chanced upon his friend Mercutio arguing with Tybalt, a member of the Capulet clan. That qurreling last caused Merquito died. Romeo was reluctant no longer. He drew his sword and slew Tybalt died. Romeo realized he had made a terrible mistake. Then Friar Lawrence advised Romeo to travel to Mantua until things cool down. He promised to inform Juliet.
In the other hand, Juliet’s father had decided the time for her to marry with Paris. Juliet consulted Friar Lawrence and made a plot to take a sleeping potion for Juliet which would simulate death for three days. The plot proceeded according to the plan. Juliet was sleeping in death.
Unfortunately, The Friar’s letter failed to reach Romeo. Under the cover of darkness, he broke into Juliet’s tomb. Romeo kissed the lips of his Juliet one last time and drank the poison. Meanwhile, the effects of the sleeping potion wear off. Juliet woke up calling for Romeo. She found her love next to her but was lying dead, with a cup of poison in his hand. She tried to kiss the poison from his lips, but failed. Then Juliet put out his dagger and plunged it into her breast. She died.

There once lived a poor tailor, who had a son called Aladdin, a careless, idle boy who would do nothing but play all day long in the streets with little idle boys like himself. This so grieved the father that he died; yet, in spite of his mother's tears and prayers, Aladdin did not mend his ways. One day, when he was playing in the streets as usual, a stranger asked him his age, and if he were not the son of Mustapha the tailor.

"I am, sir," replied Aladdin, "but he died a long while ago." On this the stranger, who was a famous African magician, fell on his neck and kissed him, saying: "I am your uncle, and knew you from your likeness to my brother. Go to your mother and tell her I am coming."

Aladdin ran home, and told his mother of his newly found uncle.

"Indeed, child," she said, "your father had a brother, but I always thought he was dead."

However, she prepared supper, and bade Aladdin seek his uncle, who came laden with wine and fruit. He presently fell down and kissed the place where Mustapha used to sit, bidding Aladdin's mother not to be surprised at not having seen him before, as he had been forty years out of the country. He then turned to Aladdin, and asked him his trade, at which the boy hung his head, while his mother burst into tears. On learning that Aladdin was idle and would learn no trade, he offered to take a shop for him and stock it with merchandise. Next day he bought Aladdin a fine suit of clothes, and took him all over the city, showing him the sights, and brought him home at nightfall to his mother, who was overjoyed to see her son so fine.

Next day the magician led Aladdin into some beautiful gardens a long way outside the city gates. They sat down by a fountain, and the magician pulled a cake from his girdle, which he divided between them. They then journeyed onwards till they almost reached the mountains. Aladdin was so tired that he begged to go back, but the magician beguiled him with pleasant stories, and led him on in spite of himself.

At last they came to two mountains divided by a narrow valley.

"We will go no farther," said the false uncle. "I will show you something wonderful; only do you gather up sticks while I kindle a fire."

When it was lit the magician threw on it a powder he had about him, at the same time saying some magical words. The earth trembled a little and opened in front of them, disclosing a square flat stone with a brass ring in the middle to raise it by. Aladdin tried to run away, but the magician caught him and gave him a blow that knocked him down.

"What have I done, uncle?" he said piteously; whereupon the magician said more kindly: "Fear nothing, but obey me. Beneath this stone lies a treasure which is to be yours, and no one else may touch it, so you must do exactly as I tell you."

At the word treasure, Aladdin forgot his fears, and grasped the ring as he was told, saying the names of his father and grandfather. The stone came up quite easily and some steps appeared.

"Go down," said the magician; "at the foot of those steps you will find an open door leading into three large halls. Tuck up your gown and go through them without touching anything, or you will die instantly. These halls lead into a garden of fine fruit trees. Walk on till you come to a niche in a terrace where stands a lighted lamp. Pour out the oil it contains and bring it to me."

He drew a ring from his finger and gave it to Aladdin, bidding him prosper.

Aladdin found everything as the magician had said, gathered some fruit off the trees, and, having got the lamp, arrived at the mouth of the cave. The magician cried out in a great hurry:

"Make haste and give me the lamp." This Aladdin refused to do until he was out of the cave. The magician flew into a terrible passion, and throwing some more powder on the fire, he said something, and the stone rolled back into its place.

The magician left Persia for ever, which plainly showed that he was no uncle of Aladdin's, but a cunning magician who had read in his magic books of a wonderful lamp, which would make him the most powerful man in the world. Though he alone knew where to find it, he could only receive it from the hand of another. He had picked out the foolish Aladdin for this purpose, intending to get the lamp and kill him afterwards.

For two days Aladdin remained in the dark, crying and lamenting. At last he clasped his hands in prayer, and in so doing rubbed the ring, which the magician had forgotten to take from him. Immediately an enormous and frightful genie rose out of the earth, saying:

"What wouldst thou with me? I am the Slave of the Ring, and will obey thee in all things."

Aladdin fearlessly replied: "Deliver me from this place!" whereupon the earth opened, and he found himself outside. As soon as his eyes could bear the light he went home, but fainted on the threshold. When he came to himself he told his mother what had passed, and showed her the lamp and the fruits he had gathered in the garden, which were in reality precious stones. He then asked for some food.

"Alas! child," she said, "I have nothing in the house, but I have spun a little cotton and will go and sell it."

Aladdin bade her keep her cotton, for he would sell the lamp instead. As it was very dirty she began to rub it, that it might fetch a higher price. Instantly a hideous genie appeared, and asked what she would have. She fainted away, but Aladdin, snatching the lamp, said boldly:

"Fetch me something to eat!"

The genie returned with a silver bowl, twelve silver plates containing rich meats, two silver cups, and two bottles of wine. Aladdin's mother, when she came to herself, said:

"Whence comes this splendid feast?"

"Ask not, but eat," replied Aladdin.

So they sat at breakfast till it was dinner-time, and Aladdin told his mother about the lamp. She begged him to sell it, and have nothing to do with devils.

"No," said Aladdin, "since chance has made us aware of its virtues, we will use it and the ring likewise, which I shall always wear on my finger." When they had eaten all the genie had brought, Aladdin sold one of the silver plates, and so on till none were left. He then had recourse to the genie, who gave him another set of plates, and thus they lived for many years.

One day Aladdin heard an order from the Sultan proclaimed that everyone was to stay at home and close his shutters while the princess, his daughter, went to and from the bath. Aladdin was seized by a desire to see her face, which was very difficult, as she always went veiled. He hid himself behind the door of the bath, and peeped through a chink. The princess lifted her veil as she went in, and looked so beautiful that Aladdin fell in love with her at first sight. He went home so changed that his mother was frightened. He told her he loved the princess so deeply that he could not live without her, and meant to ask her in marriage of her father. His mother, on hearing this, burst out laughing, but Aladdin at last prevailed upon her to go before the Sultan and carry his request. She fetched a napkin and laid in it the magic fruits from the enchanted garden, which sparkled and shone like the most beautiful jewels. She took these with her to please the Sultan, and set out, trusting in the lamp. The grand-vizier and the lords of council had just gone in as she entered the hall and placed herself in front of the Sultan. He, however, took no notice of her. She went every day for a week, and stood in the same place.

When the council broke up on the sixth day the Sultan said to his vizier: "I see a certain woman in the audience-chamber every day carrying something in a napkin. Call her next time, that I may find out what she wants."

Next day, at a sign from the vizier, she went up to the foot of the throne, and remained kneeling till the Sultan said to her: "Rise, good woman, and tell me what you want."

She hesitated, so the Sultan sent away all but the vizier, and bade her speak freely, promising to forgive her beforehand for anything she might say. She then told him of her son's violent love for the princess.

"I prayed him to forget her," she said, "but in vain; he threatened to do some desperate deed if I refused to go and ask your Majesty for the hand of the princess. Now I pray you to forgive not me alone, but my son Aladdin."

The Sultan asked her kindly what she had in the napkin, whereupon she unfolded the jewels and presented them.

He was thunderstruck, and turning to the vizier said: "What sayest thou? Ought I not to bestow the princess on one who values her at such a price?"

The vizier, who wanted her for his own son, begged the Sultan to withhold her for three months, in the course of which he hoped his son would contrive to make him a richer present. The Sultan granted this, and told Aladdin's mother that, though he consented to the marriage, she must not appear before him again for three months.

Aladdin waited patiently for nearly three months, but after two had elapsed his mother, going into the city to buy oil, found everyone rejoicing, and asked what was going on.

"Do you not know," was the answer, "that the son of the grand-vizir is to marry the Sultan's daughter to-night?"

Breathless, she ran and told Aladdin, who was overwhelmed at first, but presently bethought him of the lamp. He rubbed it, and the genie appeared, saying: "What is thy will?"

Aladdin replied: "The Sultan, as thou knowest, has broken his promise to me, and the vizier's son is to have the princess. My command is that tonight you bring hither the bride and bridegroom."

"Master, I obey," said the genie.

Aladdin then went to his chamber, where, sure enough at midnight the genie transported the bed containing the vizier's son and the princess.

"Take this new-married man," he said, "and put him outside in the cold, and return at daybreak."

Whereupon the genie took the vizier's son out of bed, leaving Aladdin with the princess.

"Fear nothing," Aladdin said to her; "you are my wife, promised to me by your unjust father, and no harm shall come to you."

The princess was too frightened to speak, and passed the most miserable night of her life, while Aladdin lay down beside her and slept soundly. At the appointed hour the genie fetched in the shivering bridegroom, laid him in his place, and transported the bed back to the palace.

Presently the Sultan came to wish his daughter good-morning. The unhappy vizier's son jumped up and hid himself, while the princess would not say a word, and was very sorrowful.

The Sultan sent her mother to her, who said: "How comes it, child, that you will not speak to your father? What has happened?"

The princess sighed deeply, and at last told her mother how, during the night, the bed had been carried into some strange house, and what had passed there. Her mother did not believe her in the least, but bade her rise and consider it an idle dream.

The following night exactly the same thing happened, and next morning, on the princess's refusing to speak, the Sultan threatened to cut off her head. She then confessed all, bidding him ask the vizier's son if it were not so. The Sultan told the vizier to ask his son, who owned the truth, adding that, dearly as he loved the princess, he had rather die than go through another such fearful night, and wished to be separated from her. His wish was granted, and there was an end of feasting and rejoicing.

When the three months were over, Aladdin sent his mother to remind the Sultan of his promise. She stood in the same place as before, and the Sultan, who had forgotten Aladdin, at once remembered him, and sent for her. On seeing her poverty the Sultan felt less inclined than ever to keep his word, and asked the vizier's advice, who counseled him to set so high a value on the princess that no man living could come up to it.

The Sultan then turned to Aladdin's mother, saying: "Good woman, a Sultan must remember his promises, and I will remember mine, but your son must first send me forty basins of gold brimful of jewels, carried by forty black slaves, led by as many white ones, splendidly dressed. Tell him that I await his answer." The mother of Aladdin bowed low and went home, thinking all was lost.

She gave Aladdin the message, adding, "He may wait long enough for your answer!"

"Not so long, mother, as you think," her son replied "I would do a great deal more than that for the princess."

He summoned the genie, and in a few moments the eighty slaves arrived, and filled up the small house and garden.

Aladdin made them set out to the palace, two and two, followed by his mother. They were so richly dressed, with such splendid jewels in their girdles, that everyone crowded to see them and the basins of gold they carried on their heads.

They entered the palace, and, after kneeling before the Sultan, stood in a half-circle round the throne with their arms crossed, while Aladdin's mother presented them to the Sultan.

He hesitated no longer, but said: "Good woman, return and tell your son that I wait for him with open arms."

She lost no time in telling Aladdin, bidding him make haste. But Aladdin first called the genie.

"I want a scented bath," he said, "a richly embroidered habit, a horse surpassing the Sultan's, and twenty slaves to attend me. Besides this, six slaves, beautifully dressed, to wait on my mother; and lastly, ten thousand pieces of gold in ten purses."

No sooner said than done. Aladdin mounted his horse and passed through the streets, the slaves strewing gold as they went. Those who had played with him in his childhood knew him not, he had grown so handsome.

When the Sultan saw him he came down from his throne, embraced him, and led him into a hall where a feast was spread, intending to marry him to the princess that very day.

But Aladdin refused, saying, "I must build a palace fit for her," and took his leave.

Once home he said to the genie, "Build me a palace of the finest marble, set with jasper, agate, and other precious stones. In the middle you shall build me a large hall with a dome, its four walls of massy gold and silver, each side having six windows, whose lattices, all except one, which is to be left unfinished, must be set with diamonds and rubies. There must be stables and horses and grooms and slaves; go and see about it!"

The palace was finished by next day, and the genie carried him there and showed him all his orders faithfully carried out, even to the laying of a velvet carpet from Aladdin's palace to the Sultan's. Aladdin's mother then dressed herself carefully, and walked to the palace with her slaves, while he followed her on horseback. The Sultan sent musicians with trumpets and cymbals to meet them, so that the air resounded with music and cheers. She was taken to the princess, who saluted her and treated her with great honor. At night the princess said good-bye to her father, and set out on the carpet for Aladdin's palace, with his mother at her side, and followed by the hundred slaves. She was charmed at the sight of Aladdin, who ran to receive her.

"Princess," he said, "blame your beauty for my boldness if I have displeased you."

She told him that, having seen him, she willingly obeyed her father in this matter. After the wedding had taken place Aladdin led her into the hall, where a feast was spread, and she supped with him, after which they danced till midnight.

The next day Aladdin invited the Sultan to see the palace. On entering the hall with the four-and-twenty windows, with their rubies, diamonds, and emeralds, he cried:

"It is a world's wonder! There is only one thing that surprises me. Was it by accident that one window was left unfinished?"

"No, sir, by design," returned Aladdin. "I wished your Majesty to have the glory of finishing this palace."

The Sultan was pleased, and sent for the best jewelers in the city. He showed them the unfinished window, and bade them fit it up like the others.

"Sir," replied their spokesman, "we cannot find jewels enough."

The Sultan had his own fetched, which they soon used, but to no purpose, for in a month's time the work was not half done. Aladdin, knowing that their task was vain, bade them undo their work and carry the jewels back, and the genie finished the window at his command. The Sultan was surprised to receive his jewels again and visited Aladdin, who showed him the window finished. The Sultan embraced him, the envious vizier meanwhile hinting that it was the work of enchantment.

Aladdin had won the hearts of the people by his gentle bearing. He was made captain of the Sultan's armies, and won several battles for him, but remained modest and courteous as before, and lived thus in peace and content for several years.

But far away in Africa the magician remembered Aladdin, and by his magic arts discovered that Aladdin, instead of perishing miserably in the cave, had escaped, and had married a princess, with whom he was living in great honor and wealth. He knew that the poor tailor's son could only have accomplished this by means of the lamp, and traveled night and day 'till he reached the capital of China, bent on Aladdin's ruin. As he passed through the town he heard people talking everywhere about a marvelous palace.

"Forgive my ignorance," he asked, "what is this palace you speak of?"

"Have you not heard of Prince Aladdin's palace," was the reply, "the greatest wonder of the world? I will direct you if you have a mind to see it."

The magician thanked him who spoke, and having seen the palace knew that it had been raised by the genie of the lamp, and became half mad with rage. He determined to get hold of the lamp, and again plunge Aladdin into the deepest poverty.

Unluckily, Aladdin had gone a-hunting for eight days, which gave the magician plenty of time. He bought a dozen copper lamps, put them into a basket, and went to the palace, crying: "New lamps for old!" followed by a jeering crowd.

The princess, sitting in the hall of four-and-twenty windows, sent a slave to find out what the noise was about, who came back laughing, so that the princess scolded her.

"Madam," replied the slave, "who can help laughing to see an old fool offering to exchange fine new lamps for old ones?"

Another slave, hearing this, said, "There is an old one on the cornice there which he can have."

Now this was the magic lamp, which Aladdin had left there, as he could not take it out hunting with him. The princess, not knowing its value, laughingly bade the slave take it and make the exchange.

She went and said to the magician, "Give me a new lamp for this."

He snatched it and bade the slave take her choice, amid the jeers of the crowd. Little he cared, but left off crying his lamps, and went out of the city gates to a lonely place, where he remained 'till nightfall, when he pulled out the lamp and rubbed it. The genie appeared, and at the magician's command carried him, together with the palace and the princess in it, to a lonely place in Africa.

The next morning the Sultan looked out of the window towards Aladdin's palace and rubbed his eyes, for it was gone. He sent for the vizier, and asked what had become of the palace. The vizier looked out too, and was lost in astonishment. He again put it down to enchantment, and this time the Sultan believed him, and sent thirty men on horseback to fetch Aladdin in chains. They met him riding home, bound him, and forced him to go with them on foot. The people, however, who loved him, followed, armed, to see that he came to no harm. He was carried before the Sultan, who ordered the executioner to cut off his head. The executioner made Aladdin kneel down, bandaged his eyes, and raised his scimitar to strike.

At that instant the vizier, who saw that the crowd had forced their way into the courtyard and were scaling the walls to rescue Aladdin, called to the executioner to stay his hand. The people, indeed, looked so threatening that the Sultan gave way and ordered Aladdin to be unbound, and pardoned him in the sight of the crowd.

Aladdin now begged to know what he had done.

"False wretch!" said the Sultan, "come hither," and showed him from the window the place where his palace had stood.

Aladdin was so amazed that he could not say a word.

"Where is my palace and my daughter?" demanded the Sultan. "For the first I am not so deeply concerned, but my daughter I must have, and you must find her or lose your head."

Aladdin begged for forty days in which to find her, promising if he failed to return and suffer death at the Sultan's pleasure. His prayer was granted, and he went forth sadly from the Sultan's presence. For three days he wandered about like a madman, asking everyone what had become of his palace, but they only laughed and pitied him. He came to the banks of a river, and knelt down to say his prayers before throwing himself in. In so doing he rubbed the magic ring he still wore.

The genie he had seen in the cave appeared, and asked his will.

"Save my life, genie," said Aladdin, "and bring my palace back."

"That is not in my power," said the genie; "I am only the slave of the ring; you must ask the slave of the lamp."

"Even so," said Aladdin "but thou canst take me to the palace, and set me down under my dear wife's window." He at once found himself in Africa, under the window of the princess, and fell asleep out of sheer weariness.

He was awakened by the singing of the birds, and his heart was lighter. He saw plainly that all his misfortunes were owing to the loss of the lamp, and vainly wondered who had robbed him of it.

That morning the princess rose earlier than she had done since she had been carried into Africa by the magician, whose company she was forced to endure once a day. She, however, treated him so harshly that he dared not live there altogether. As she was dressing, one of her women looked out and saw Aladdin. The princess ran and opened the window, and at the noise she made Aladdin looked up. She called to him to come to her, and great was the joy of these lovers at seeing each other again.

After he had kissed her Aladdin said, "I beg of you, Princess, in God's name, before we speak of anything else, for your own sake and mine, tell me what has become of an old lamp I left on the cornice in the hall of four-and-twenty windows, when I went a-hunting."

"Alas!" she said "I am the innocent cause of our sorrows," and told him of the exchange of the lamp.

"Now I know," cried Aladdin, "that we have to thank the African magician for this! Where is the lamp?"

"He carries it about with him," said the princess, "I know, for he pulled it out of his breast to show me. He wishes me to break my faith with you and marry him, saying that you were beheaded by my father's command. He is forever speaking ill of you, but I only reply by my tears. If I persist, I doubt not that he will use violence."

Aladdin comforted her, and left her for a while. He changed clothes with the first person he met in the town, and having bought a certain powder returned to the princess, who let him in by a little side door.

"Put on your most beautiful dress," he said to her, "and receive the magician with smiles, leading him to believe that you have forgotten me. Invite him to sup with you, and say you wish to taste the wine of his country. He will go for some, and while he is gone I will tell you what to do."

She listened carefully to Aladdin, and when he left her arrayed herself gaily for the first time since she left China. She put on a girdle and head-dress of diamonds, and seeing in a glass that she looked more beautiful than ever, received the magician, saying to his great amazement: "I have made up my mind that Aladdin is dead, and that all my tears will not bring him back to me, so I am resolved to mourn no more, and have therefore invited you to sup with me; but I am tired of the wines of China, and would fain taste those of Africa."

The magician flew to his cellar, and the princess put the powder Aladdin had given her in her cup. When he returned she asked him to drink her health in the wine of Africa, handing him her cup in exchange for his as a sign she was reconciled to him.

Before drinking the magician made her a speech in praise of her beauty, but the princess cut him short saying:

"Let me drink first, and you shall say what you will afterwards." She set her cup to her lips and kept it there, while the magician drained his to the dregs and fell back lifeless.

The princess then opened the door to Aladdin, and flung her arms round his neck, but Aladdin put her away, bidding her to leave him, as he had more to do. He then went to the dead magician, took the lamp out of his vest, and bade the genie carry the palace and all in it back to China. This was done, and the princess in her chamber only felt two little shocks, and little thought she was at home again.

The Sultan, who was sitting in his closet, mourning for his lost daughter, happened to look up, and rubbed his eyes, for there stood the palace as before! He hastened thither, and Aladdin received him in the hall of the four-and-twenty windows, with the princess at his side. Aladdin told him what had happened, and showed him the dead body of the magician, that he might believe. A ten days' feast was proclaimed, and it seemed as if Aladdin might now live the rest of his life in peace; but it was not to be.

The African magician had a younger brother, who was, if possible, more wicked and more cunning than himself. He traveled to China to avenge his brother's death, and went to visit a pious woman called Fatima, thinking she might be of use to him. He entered her cell and clapped a dagger to her breast, telling her to rise and do his bidding on pain of death. He changed clothes with her, colored his face like hers, put on her veil and murdered her, that she might tell no tales. Then he went towards the palace of Aladdin, and all the people thinking he was the holy woman, gathered round him, kissing his hands and begging his blessing. When he got to the palace there was such a noise going on round him that the princess bade her slave look out of the window and ask what was the matter. The slave said it was the holy woman, curing people by her touch of their ailments, whereupon the princess, who had long desired to see Fatima, sent for her. On coming to the princess the magician offered up a prayer for her health and prosperity. When he had done the princess made him sit by her, and begged him to stay with her always. The false Fatima, who wished for nothing better, consented, but kept his veil down for fear of discovery. The princess showed him the hall, and asked him what he thought of it.

"It is truly beautiful," said the false Fatima. "In my mind it wants but one thing."

"And what is that?" said the princess.

"If only a roc's egg," replied he, "were hung up from the middle of this dome, it would be the wonder of the world."

After this the princess could think of nothing but a roc's egg, and when Aladdin returned from hunting he found her in a very ill humor. He begged to know what was amiss, and she told him that all her pleasure in the hall was spoilt for the want of a roc's egg hanging from the dome.

"It that is all," replied Aladdin, "you shall soon be happy."

He left her and rubbed the lamp, and when the genie appeared commanded him to bring a roc's egg. The genie gave such a loud and terrible shriek that the hall shook.

"Wretch!" he cried, "is it not enough that I have done everything for you, but you must command me to bring my master and hang him up in the midst of this dome? You and your wife and your palace deserve to be burnt to ashes; but this request does not come from you, but from the brother of the African magician whom you destroyed. He is now in your palace disguised as the holy woman--whom he murdered. He it was who put that wish into your wife's head. Take care of yourself, for he means to kill you." So saying the genie disappeared.

Aladdin went back to the princess, saying his head ached, and requesting that the holy Fatima should be fetched to lay her hands on it. But when the magician came near, Aladdin, seizing his dagger, pierced him to the heart.

"What have you done?" cried the princess. "You have killed the holy woman!"

"Not so," replied Aladdin, "but a wicked magician," and told her of how she had been deceived.

After this Aladdin and his wife lived in peace. He succeeded the Sultan when he died, and reigned for many years, leaving behind him a long line of kings.
Rabbit and Bear


Once upon a time, there lived as neighbours, a bear and a rabbit. The rabbit is a good shot. In contrary, the bear is always clumsy ad could not use the arrow to good advantage.
narrative text - bos-sulap.blogspot.com
One day, the bear called over the rabbit and asked the rabbit to take his bow and arrows and came with bear to the other side of the hill. The rabbit was fearing to arouse the bear's anger so he could not refuse it. He consented and went with the bear and shot enough buffalo to satisfy the hungry family. Indeed he shot and killed so many that there was lots of meat left after the bear and his family had loaded themselves and packed all they could carry home.
narrative text - bos-sulap.blogspot.com
The bear was very gluttonous and did not want the rabbit to get any of the meat. Th e rabbit could not even taste the blood from the butchering as the bear would throw earth on the blood and dry it up. The poor rabbit would have to go home hungry after his hard day's work.
narrative text - bos-sulap.blogspot.com
The bear was the father of five children. The youngest child was very kind to the rabbit. He was very hearty eater. The mother bear always gave him an extra large piece of meat but the youngest child did not eat it. He would take it outside with him and pretended to play ball with the meat. He kicked toward the rabbit's house and when he got close to the door he would give the meat with such a great kick. The meat would fly into the rabbit's house. In this way, the poor rabbit would get his meal unknown to the papa bear.
Narrative text : “Monkey and Crocodile”
One day a monkey wanted to cross a river. He saw a crocodile in the river, so he asked the crocodile to take him across the other side. The crocodile told the monkey to jump on its back. Then the crocodile swam down the river.
Now, the crocodile was very hungry, so when it was in the middle of the river, it stopped and said to the monkey, ”Monkey, my father is very sick. He must eat the heart of the monkey. Then he will be strong again.”
The monkey thought for a while. Then he told the crocodile to swim back to the river bank.
“What’s for?” asked the crocodile.
“Because I didn’t bring my heart with me,” said the monkey. “I left it under the tree, near some coconuts.”
So, the crocodile turned around and swam back to the bank of the river. As soon as they reached the river bank, the monkey jumped off the crocodile’s back and climbed up to the top of a tree.
“Where is your heart?” asked the crocodile.
“You are foolish,” the monkey said to the crocodile. “Now I am free and you have nothing.”
The monkey told the crocodile not to try to fool him again. The crocodile swam away, hungry.
Narrative Text : The Moon, A Balloon, and A Spoon
This is a very strange story about the moon, a balloon and a spoon-but who's to say it isn't true?
It happened late one night when everybody had gone to bed. All the children in the houses had been fast asleep for hours, and all the grown-ups too. Only the cats that sat on the rooftops were wide awake in the monnlight.

Suddenly there came a noise like..,,,...thunder perhaps, or a jet plane maybe, or the roaring, rushing sound of a hurricane......no-one could really say for sure.

All at once everyone was out of bed opening their windows and looking up into the sky.
There it was again, and again, and again. The noise was so loud that it knocked off some of the chimney pots and sent them rolling down the roofs.

"What is it?" the people in the houses cried with fright.

A ginger cat who had been sitting on the roof seemed to know the answer.

"Its the Moon!" he purred, looking very aloof. "The Moon has a bad cold and he keeps on sneezing!" and the ginger cat strolled off to find a quieter rooftop.

Sure enough when the people looked up into the sky, they could see that the Moon had a dreadful cold red nose and all!

The stars were scattered across the sky, for they found it very difficult to hang on when the Moon was sneezing so hard.

All through that night the moon sneezed and sneezed. No-one got a wink of sleep and everyone felt very tired and grumpy next morning.

"What are we going to do?" neighbours asked one another-but nobody had the least idea.

"How long does a bad cold usually last?" someone asked the chemist in the shop down the street.

"At least a week," he said gravely, "and in some cases up to a fortnight!"

Everybody groaned. No sleep for a fortnight.....it was unthinkable!.

"What the Moon really needs is a bottle of my best cold medicine," the chemist went on, "that will stop him sneezing in a jiffy."

"This all sounds very silly indeed," said a lady who lived in one of the houses. "How on earth can we give medicine to the Moon?"

"Somebody could float up there in a ballon," said one little boy "they do it all the time in nursery rhymes and fairy stories!"

"That sounds like a very good idea to me," a man spoke up, "I have a hot-air balloon and would gladly help the Moon's bad cold!"

First the medicine had to be mixed. The chemist found everything he needed and put all the ingredients into a great big bowl. He had a giant bottle in his shop window so he carefully poured the cold mixture into that.
"So far so good," smiled the chemist looking very pleased with himself.

"We shall need a giant spoon!" piped up the little boy (whose idea it was in the first place).
"I've just the thing," cried the baker. "I use it to stir my cakes at Christmas time.......I've such a lot to make!"

So straight away he ran to his shop to fetch the giant spoon.

The man who owned the hot-air balloon started getting things ready.

The little boy (whose idea it was in the first place), was going up in the basket to give the Moon the medicine.
By the time darkness fell and the Moon appeared in the sky, everything was ready.

You could hear that the Moon's cold was no better, in fact he sounded much worse. Even the clouds were being blown all over the place.

"Soon we shall be sneezing instead of twinkling," some of the stars grumbled loudly.
At long last the man in the hot-air balloon and the little boy, (whose idea it was in the first place), reached the Moon.

Very, very carefully the little boy gave the Moon the cold medicine from the giant spoon.

"Is it alright to take the whole bottle?" asked the Moon wheezing and sneezing.

"Perfectly alright," the little boy replied, "it says so on the label!"

The cold medicine worked wonders. In next to no time the Moon recovered and all was peace and quiet.
Everyone in the houses had a good night's sleep, for there was nothing to disturb their slumbers......and the cats walked along the rooftops as usual and gazed up at the moon, who was asleep too!




The Story of Sangkuriang and Tangkuban Perahu Mountain


Once, there was a kingdom in Priangan Land. Lived a happy family. They were a father in form of dog,his name is Tumang, a mother which was called is Dayang Sumbi, and a child which was called Sangkuriang.
One day, Dayang Sumbi asked her son to go hunting with his lovely dog, Tumang. After hunting all day, Sangkuriang began desperate and worried because he hunted no deer. Then he thought to shot his own dog. Then he took the dog liver and carried home.

Soon Dayang Sumbi found out that it was not deer lever but Tumang's, his own dog. So, She was very angry and hit Sangkuriang's head. In that incident, Sangkuriang got wounded and scar then cast away from their home.

Years go bye, Sangkuriang had travel many places and finally arrived at a village. He met a beautiful woman and felt in love with her. When they were discussing their wedding plans, The woman looked at the wound in Sangkuriang's head. It matched to her son's wound who had left severall years earlier. Soon she realized that she felt in love with her own son.

She couldn't marry him but how to say it. Then, she found the way. She needed a lake and a boat for celebrating their wedding day. Sangkuriang had to make them in one night. He built a lake. With a dawn just moment away and the boat was almost complete. Dayang Sumbi had to stop it. Then, she lit up the eastern horizon with flashes of light. It made the cock crowed for a new day.
Sangkuriang failed to marry her. She was very angry and kicked the boat. It felt over and became the mountain of Tangkuban Perahu Bandung.

Cinderella (1)

Once upon a time there was a girl named Cinderella. She lived with her stepsisters. They were very bossy. She had to do all the housework.
One day an invitation to the ball came to the family. Her stepsisters would not let her go. Cinderella was sad. The stepsisters went to the ball without her.
Fortunately, the fairy Godmother came and helped her to get to the ball. At the ball, Cinderella danced with the Prince. The Prince fell in love with her and then he married her. They lived happily ever after.

Cinderella (2)

Long time ago, there was a beautiful girl named Cinderella. She lived with a very mean family. She did the dishes. She cooked the meals. She even took out the garbage.
One day the family went to a party at the prince’s palace. Cinderella was sad. She said, “I want to go too!”
Suddenly a fairy princess came and said, “I can help you.” She gave Cinderella a party dress and some glass slippers. Then she said, “Come home early. My magic ends at midnight. I’m just learning this job.”
Cinderella went to the party and danced with the prince. She forgot about time. Then she saw a clock. It was almost midnight! Cinderella ran home, but she lost one of her glass slippers on the way.
The prince wanted to marry Cinderella, but all he had was the glass slipper. Many women tried on the slipper, but it didn’t fit. The prince thought, “Everyone has such big feet!” Then one day, Cinderella tried it on, and it fit!
The prince and Cinderella got married, and they lived happily ever after.

Cinderella (3)

Once upon a time there was a young girl named Cinderella who lived with her stepmother and stepsisters.
Cinderella’s stepmother and stepsisters were very mean and bad tempered. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her stepmother made Cinderella do the hardest work in the house, such as scrubbing the floor and cleaning the pots and pans. She gave Cinderella an old ragged dress to wear. The two stepsisters, on the other hand, did no work about the house. And their mother gave them many nice dresses to wear.
One day the two stepsisters received an invitation to a ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. At the last day of the ball came, and away went the sisters to it. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left.
“Why are you crying, Cinderella? a voice asked. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. “Because I want so much to go to the ball,” said Cinderella. “Well,” said her godmother, “you’ve been such a cheerful, uncomplaining, hardworking girl that I’m going to see that you do go to the ball.”
Magically, the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s ragged dress with her wand, and it became a beautiful ball gown. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. “Now, Cinderella,” she said, “you must leave before midnight.” Then, away she drove in her beautiful coach.
Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. She danced again and again with the king’s son. Suddenly, the clock began to strike twelve. She ran towards the door as quickly as she could. In her hurry, one of her glass slippers came off and was left behind.
A few days later the king’s son proclaimed he would marry the girl whose foot fitted the glass slipper. The king’s page came to Cinderella’s house. Her stepsisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them now matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. The king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. She stuck out her foot, and the page slipped the slipper on. It fitted perfectly.
Finally, she was driven to the palace. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. They were married and lived happily ever after.
The Three Feathers

There was once upon a time a king who had three sons, of whom two were clever and wise, but the third did not speak much, and was simple, and was called the simpleton. When the king had become old and weak, and was thinking of his end, he did not know which of his sons should inherit the kingdom after him. Then he said to them, go forth, and he who brings me the most beautiful carpet shall be king after my death.

And that there should be no dispute amongst them, he took them outside his castle, blew three feathers in the air, and said, you shall go as they fly. One feather flew to the east, the other to the west, but the third flew straight up and did not fly far, but soon fell to the ground.

And now one brother went to the right, and the other to the left, and they mocked simpleton, who was forced to stay where the third feather had fallen. He sat down and was sad. Then all at once he saw that there was a trap-door close by the feather. He raised it up, found some steps, and went down them. Then he came to another door, knocked at it, and heard somebody inside calling - little green waiting-maid, waiting-maid with the limping leg, little dog of the limping leg, hop hither and thither, and quickly see who is without.

The door opened, and he saw a great, fat toad sitting, and round about her a crowd of little toads. The fat toad asked what he wanted. He answered, I should like to have the prettiest and finest carpet in the world. Then she called a young one and said - little green waiting-maid, waiting-maid with the limping leg, little dog of the limping leg, hop hither and thither, and bring me the great box.

The young toad brought the box, and the fat toad opened it, and gave simpleton a carpet out of it, so beautiful and so fine, that on the earth above, none could have been woven like it. Then he thanked her, and climbed out again.

The two others, however, had looked on their youngest brother as so stupid that they believed he would find and bring nothing at all. Why should we give ourselves a great deal of trouble searching, said they, and got some coarse handkerchiefs from the first shepherds' wives whom they met, and carried them home to the king.

At the same time simpleton also came back, and brought his beautiful carpet, and when the king saw it he was astonished, and said, if justice be done, the kingdom belongs to the youngest. But the two others let their father have no peace, and said that it was impossible that simpleton, who in everything lacked understanding,
should be king, and entreated him to make a new agreement with them.

Then the father said, he who brings me the most beautiful ring shall inherit the kingdom, and led the three brothers out, and blew into the air three feathers, which they were to follow. Those of the two eldest again went east and west, and simpleton's feather flew straight up, and fell down near the door into the earth.

Then he went down again to the fat toad, and told her that he wanted the most beautiful ring. She at once ordered her big box to be brought, and gave him a ring out of it, which sparkled with jewels, and was so beautiful that no goldsmith on earth would have been able to make it.

The two eldest laughed at simpleton for going to seek a golden ring. They gave themselves no trouble, but knocked the nails out of an old carriage-ring, and took it to the king, but when simpleton produced his golden ring, his father again said, the kingdom belongs to him. The two eldest did not cease from tormenting the king until he made a third condition, and declared that the one who brought the most
beautiful woman home, should have the kingdom. He again blew the three feathers into the air, and they flew as before.

Then simpleton without more ado went down to the fat toad, and said, I am to take home the most beautiful woman. Oh, answered the toad, the most beautiful woman. She is not at hand at the moment, but still you shall have her. She gave him a yellow turnip which had been hollowed out, to which six mice were harnessed. Then simpleton said quite mournfully, what am I to do with that. The toad answered,
just put one of my little toads into it. Then he seized one at random out of the circle, and put her into the yellow coach, but hardly was she seated inside it than she turned into a wonderfully beautiful maiden, and the turnip into a coach, and the six mice into horses. So he kissed her, and drove off quickly with the horses, and
took her to the king.

His brothers, who came afterwards, had given themselves no trouble at all looking for beautiful girls, but had brought with them the first peasant women they chanced to meet. When the king saw them he said, after my death the kingdom belongs to my youngest son. But the two eldest deafened the king's ears afresh with their clamor, we cannot consent to simpleton's being king, and demanded that the one whose wife could leap through a ring which hung in the centre of the hall should have the preference. They thought, the peasant women can do that easily, they are strong enough, but the delicate maiden will jump herself to death.

The aged king agreed likewise to this. Then the two peasant women jumped, and jumped through the ring, but were so clumsy that they fell, and their coarse arms and legs broke in two. And then the pretty maiden whom simpleton had brought with him, sprang, and sprang through as lightly as a deer, and all opposition had to cease. So he received the crown, and has ruled wisely for a length of time.
Narrative text : “Golden Eggs”
Long time ago a remote village, in central China was inhabited mainly with farmers and hunters.
One day, a poor farmer lost his entire livestock to flood. He prayed hard to God for help or his family would die of starvation.
Few days later, an old man with long grey beard, passed by his house took pity on him. He gave him a goose and said “ I don’t have any expensive thing to give you and hope this goose will help you to ease your hardship.”
A week later to almost surprise the farmer found and egg in his yard. This was no ordinary egg. It was a golden egg. He was suddenly overcome with joy.
Thereafter, his livelihood had rapidly improved but the farmer had forgotten his earlier hardship. He became lazy, arrogant and spendthrift.
Strangely, the goose only laid one golden egg every six months. The greedy farmer lost his patient and slaughtered his goose thinking there were plenty of golden eggs inside its stomach.
Though he very much regretted for his foolishness, it’s already too late.

Three Questions

Life, Barda and jasmine, with Kree the raven, are on a perilous quest to find the seven gems stolen from the magic belt of Deltora.
Their journey has brought them to a deep chasm, over which sways a narrow bridge made of rope and wooden planks. Guarding the bridge is a golden-eyed giant.
Life stood stiffly, his heart beating fast, as Jasmine followed him around the bend. He heard her take a sharp breath as she, too, saw what was ahead.
The golden-eyed man had noticed them, but he made no move. He just stood, waiting. He wore nothing but a loincloth, yet he did not shiver in the wind. He was so still you could have thought him a statue, except that he breathed.
“He is bewitched,” Jasmine whispered, and Kree made a small, moaning sound.
They walked cautiously forward. The man watched them silently. But when finally they stood before him, at the very edge of the terrible drop, he raised his sword warningly.
“We wish to pass, friend,” Barda said. “Stand aside.”
“You must answer my question,” replied the man in a low, rasping voice. “If you answer correctly, you may pass. If you answer wrongly, I must kill you.”
“By whose order?” Jasmine demanded.
“By the order of the sorceress Thaegan,” rasped the man. At the sound of the name his skin seemed to quiver. “Once, I tried to deceive her, to save a friend from death. Now it is my doom to guard this bridge until truth and lies are one.”
He looked from one to the other. “Who will meet my challenge?”
“I will,” Jasmine said, shaking off Barda’s restraining hand and stepping forward.
The look of fear had disappeared from her face. It had been replaced by an expression that for a moment Lief did not recognize. And then, with amazement, he realized that it was pity.
“Very well.” The huge man looked down at his feet. A row of sticks lay there in the dust.




“Change eleven to nine, without removing any sticks,” he said harshly.
Life felt his stomach turn over.
“This is not a fair question,” exclaimed Barda. “We are not magicians!”
“The question has been asked,” said the man, his golden eyes unblinking. “It must be answered.”
Emily Rodda
Goolden Goose

There was a man who had three sons, the youngest of whom was called Dummling, and was despised, mocked, and sneered at on every occasion.

It happened that the eldest wanted to go into the forest to hew wood, and before he went his mother gave him a beautiful sweet cake and a bottle of wine in order that he might not suffer from hunger or thirst.

When he entered the forest he met a little grey-haired old man who bade him good-day, and said, do give me a piece of cake out of your pocket, and let me have a draught of your wine, I am so hungry and thirsty. But the clever son answered, if I give you my cake and wine, I shall have none for myself, be off with you, and he left the little man standing and went on.

But when he began to hew down a tree, it was not long before he made a false stroke, and the axe cut him in the arm, so that he had to go home and have it bound up. And this was the little grey man's doing.

After this the second son went into the forest, and his mother gave him, like the eldest, a cake and a bottle of wine. The little old grey man met him likewise, and asked him for a piece of cake and a drink of wine. But the second son, too, said sensibly enough, what I give you will be taken away from myself, be off, and he left the little man standing and went on. His punishment, however, was not delayed, when he had made a few blows at the tree he struck himself in the leg, so that he had to be carried home.

Then Dummling said, father, do let me go and cut wood. The father answered, your brothers have hurt themselves with it, leave it alone, you do not understand anything about it. But Dummling begged so long that at last he said, just go then, you will get wiser by hurting yourself. His mother gave him a cake made with water and baked in the cinders, and with it a bottle of sour beer.

When he came to the forest the little old grey man met him likewise, and greeting him, said, give me a piece of your cake and a drink out of your bottle, I am so hungry and thirsty.

Dummling answered, I have only cinder-cake and sour beer, if that pleases you, we will sit down and eat. So they sat down, and when Dummling pulled out his cinder-cake, it was a fine sweet cake, and the sour beer had become good wine. So they ate and drank, and after that the little man said, since you have a good heart, and are willing to divide what you have, I will give you good luck. There
stands an old tree, cut it down, and you will find something at the roots. Then the little man took leave of him.

Dummling went and cut down the tree, and when it fell there was a goose sitting in the roots with feathers of pure gold. He lifted her up, and taking her with him, went to an inn where he thought he would stay the night. Now the host had three daughters, who saw the goose and were curious to know what such a wonderful bird might be, and would have liked to have one of its golden feathers.

The eldest thought, I shall soon find an opportunity of pulling out a feather, and as soon as Dummling had gone out she seized the goose by the wing, but her finger and hand remained sticking fast to it.

The second came soon afterwards, thinking only of how she might get a feather for herself, but she had scarcely touched her sister than she was held fast.

At last the third also came with the like intent, and the others screamed out, keep away, for goodness, sake keep away. But she did not understand why she was to keep away. The others are there, she thought, I may as well be there too, and ran to them, but as soon as she had touched her sister, she remained sticking fast to her. So they had to spend the night with the goose.

The next morning Dummling took the goose under his arm and set out, without troubling himself about the three girls who were hanging on to it. They were obliged to run after him continually, now left, now right, wherever his legs took him.

In the middle of the fields the parson met them, and when he saw the procession he said, for shame, you good-for-nothing girls, why are you running across the fields after this young man. Is that seemly?

At the same time he seized the youngest by the hand in order to pull her away, but as soon as he touched her he likewise stuck fast, and was himself obliged to run behind.

Before long the sexton came by and saw his master, the parson, running behind three girls. He was astonished at this and called out, hi, your reverence, whither away so quickly. Do not forget that we have a christening to-day, and running after him he took him by the sleeve, but was also held fast to it. Whilst the five were trotting thus one behind the other, two laborers came with their hoes from the fields, the parson called out to them and begged that they would set him and the sexton free. But they had scarcely touched the sexton when they were held fast, and now there were seven of them running behind Dummling and the goose.

Soon afterwards he came to a city, where a king ruled who had a daughter who was so serious that no one could make her laugh. So he had put forth a decree that whosoever should be able to make her laugh should marry her. When Dummling heard this, he went with his goose and all her train before the king's daughter, and as soon as she saw the seven people running on and on, one behind the other, she
began to laugh quite loudly, and as if she would never stop.

Thereupon Dummling asked to have her for his wife, but the king did not like the son-in-law, and made all manner of excuses and said he must first produce a man who could drink a cellarful of wine.

Dummling thought of the little grey man, who could certainly help him, so he went into the forest, and in the same place where he had felled the tree, he saw a man sitting, who had a very sorrowful face.

Dummling asked him what he was taking to heart so sorely, and he answered, I have such a great thirst and cannot quench it, cold water I cannot stand, a barrel of wine I have just emptied, but that to me is like a drop on a hot stone.

There, I can help you, said Dummling, just come with me and you shall be satisfied.

He led him into the king's cellar, and the man bent over the huge barrels, and drank and drank till his loins hurt, and before the day was out he had emptied all the barrels. Then Dummling asked once more for his bride, but the king was vexed that such an ugly fellow, whom everyone called Dummling, should take away his daughter, and he made a new condition, he must first find a man who could eat a whole
mountain of bread. Dummling did not think long, but went straight into the forest, where in the same place there sat a man who was tying up his body with a strap, and making an awful face, and saying, I have eaten a whole ovenful of rolls, but what good is that when one has such a hunger as I. My stomach remains empty, and I must tie myself up if I am not to die of hunger.

At this Dummling was glad, and said, get up and come with me, you shall eat yourself full. He led him to the king's palace, where all the flour in the whole kingdom was collected, and from it he caused a huge mountain of bread to be baked. The man from the forest stood before it, began to eat, and by the end of one day the whole mountain had vanished. Then Dummling for the third time asked for his bride, but the king again sought a way out, and ordered a ship which could sail on land and on water. As soon as you come sailing back in it, said he, you shall have my daughter for wife.

Dummling went straight into the forest, and there sat the little grey man to whom he had given his cake. When he heard what Dummling wanted, he said, since you have given me to eat and to drink, I will give you the ship, and I do all this because you once were kind to me. Then he gave him the ship which could sail on land and water, and when the king saw that, he could no longer prevent him from having his daughter. The wedding was celebrated, and after the king's death, Dummling inherited his kingdom and lived for a long time contentedly with his wife

Roro Jonggrang (1)

Prabu Baka was the King of the Prambanan kingdom. He had a beautiful daughter named Loro Jonggrang. He was killed in a battle by Bandung Bondowoso, the minister of the Pengging kingdom. He was named after his magic weapon “Bandung”
After seeing Loro Jonggrang’s beauty, Bandung fell in love with her and decided to marry her. Unfortunately, Loro Jonggrang didn’t want to marry him. She knew Bandung was the murderer of her father. Then, with the advice of the Patih, Loro Jonggrang accepted Bandung’ proposal on conditions, he could build a thousand temples in one night.
Bandung’s asked his father, Darmamaya, and the king of Pengging for a help. Using their magic of power, they managed to complete 500 temples by midnight. When Loro Jonggrang knew the progress they made, she began to play a trick. She ordered all the girls to pound rice and burn something. As a result, the cocks began to crow and the sky looked red. It was the sign of dawn.
The workers stopped their work. Bandung counted the temples before him. To his surprise, there were only 999. Finally, Bandung found out Loro Jongggrang’s trick. He became very angry and pursed her. She was changed into a statue.

Roro Jonggrang (2)

The war between Pengging and Prambanan raged in the battlefield. The commander of Pengging was Prince Bandung Bandawasa and the commander of Prambanan was King Baka, a big giant. The King of Prambanan was killed, and the war was over. His wife, Roro Jonggrang, a very beautiful queen was safe.
Bandung Bandawasa fell in love with Roro Jonggrang and proposed her to be his wife. Roro Jonggrang refused his proposal because she thought it would be better if he proposed her daughter, Nawangsih. But Bandung insisted to marry her. Roro Jonggrang asked him a marriage settlement. She would accept him as her husband if Bandung could make a magnificent temple with a thousand beautiful statues around it and finished them in one night before the sun shone.
He agreed her and prayed for help to Gods. When the night fell a big work began. In the field there was a noise of carving and arranging stones, but no one could see what happened.
Bandung Bandawasa almost finished his temples, but Roro Jonggrang cheated him. She asked villagers to burn ‘paddi’ plants in the East, so the women grinded the rice and the cocks crowed. It signed that the sun shone. Bandung knew about this and became angry. He revenged her and made her a statue.
Bandung Bandawasa was deeply in love with Roro Jonggrang. So he was very disappointed seeing Roro Jonggrang became a statue. He saw the statue from a certain distance, and the statue waved him and smiled. Bandung Bandawasa called her aloud, “Jonggrang, don’t leave me!” He came closer to her but it was a stone. He did it again and again. Bandung broke his heart and came home to Pengging.
Bandung’s father, the King of Pengging asked about the war. But Bandung just smiled and murmured, “Roro Jonggrang, oh, Roro Jonggrang, will you marry me?” His father asked him again about the war, but Bandung did not care his father’s order. His father became very angry and said, “Bandung, you are the commander of Pengging, but you acted as if you were a dog". Suddenly, Bandung became a dog.
The dog ran away to the village. However, in the village the dog met a woman who was weaving clothes. The woman was in trouble with the spin (mata pintal benang). She said, “Whoever could help with my spin, he would be my husband.” No one could help her but the dog.
A Legend of Candy Cane

A candy maker in Indiana wanted to make a candy that would be a witness, so he made the Christmas Candy Cane. He incorporated several symbols for the birth, ministry, and death of Jesus Christ.

He began with a stick of pure white, hard candy. White to symbolize the Virgin Birth and the sinless nature of Jesus, and hard to symbolize the Solid Rock, the foundation of the church, and firmness of the promises of God.

The candy maker made the candy in the form of a "J" to represent the precious name of Jesus, who came to earth as our Savior. It also represents the staff of the "Good Shepherd" with which He reaches down into the ditches of the world to lift out the fallen lambs who, like all sheep, have gone astray.

Thinking that the candy was somewhat plain, the candy maker stained it with red stripes. He used the tree small stripes to show the stripes of the scourging Jesus received by which we are healed. The large red stripe was for the blood shed by Jesus on the Cross so that we could have the promise of eternal life, if only we put our faith and trust in Him. Unfortunately, the candy became known as a Candy Cane - a meaningless decoration seen at Christmas time. But the meaning is still there for those who "have eyes to see and ears to hear".

Snow White

Once upon a time, there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.
One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.
Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.
She was very tired and hungry.
Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “What s your name?” “I am Snow Said,” she said.
The dwarfs said, “If you wish, you may live here with us.” Snow White said, “Oh, I could? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.
Narrative Text English : Nopombalu

ONCE upon a time there were a handsome hunter, his name was Lawongo. In the jungle he only hunted wild hogs. The animals often always destroyed the villagers' fields. The villagers were very grateful. With Lawongo's help, their field were safe from the wild hogs.

Lawongo was also very great in playing a flute, it was so melodious. Everybody always enjoyed listening his playing the flute. One of the people was a beautiful girl. She always listened attentively. Lawongo knew there was a beautiful girl who always paid attention to him. Lawongo fell in love with her. The girl also loved him, later they got married.

They were very happy. They loved each other and promised to be always together. They would be together until they died.

In one night, Lawongo had a strange dream. In his dream he was hunting a very big wild hog. The hog attacked him. He did very hard to kill the hog. He used his knife to stab the hog and it finally died.
On the next morning, Lawongo went hunting. It was still early in the morning and he did not want to wake his wife up.

In the jungle ha did not see any animals. He could not find any wild hog either. He felt very strange. He walk and he felt very thirsty. He picked a coconut. And when he wanted to open it using his knife, he saw his knife was full of dried blood. He was confused. Suddenly he remembered his wife. Somehow he had a bad feeling about his wife. He immediately went home.

When he arrived home, many people were in front of his house. One of the people said,"We're sorry for your wife, Lawongo. Please accept our condolences."

"What happened?" asked him. He rushed into his house. He saw his wife was dead. Her body was full of blood. Lawongo was very sad. He felt very guilty. He knew last night he stabbed hi wife. He then told the villagers to do something.

"I cannot live without my wife. Please prepare two coffins, one for me and the other one is for my wife."
"No, please don't do it. You are still young and we still need you here. Besides that we still want to hear you play the flute." said one of the villagers.

"Don't worry, I still play the flute for you. Male a hole on the coffin's cover. If you cannot longer hear my playing, it means I'm dead. You go to the beach. A strange thing will appear from the sea. Do not point at that thing and do not say anything. It is my reincarnation." said Lawongo.

Later, the villagers buried the two coffins. At the first night, they could still hear his playing. However the sound was getting weaker and weaker. And finally the villagers did not hear anything.

They did Lawongo's request. They went to the beach. They all set down on the beach. Suddenly, a strange thing appeared from the sea. It was very big. They all were surprised. However they did not say anything. The thing finally stooped growing.

The villagers used their sampan and came to the thing. It was a coral island. They named the island as Napombalu, which is from the words Napo and Nawalu. Napo means a coral island and Nawalu means a strange thing which turn into an island.

The King’s New Clothes

Once there was a king who loved new clothes.
One day two men came to the castle and told the king, “For two bags of gold, we are going to make you some beautiful, magic clothes. Only you are going to be able to see them.”
The king was very excited. The men said, “Your clothes are going to be finished in two weeks, on July 14.” The king went to his calendar and marked July fourteenth to be a holiday. “Everyone is going to celebrate my new clothes with me,” he said.
On July sixth, the king went to see the two men. They worked fast and hard, but the king didn’t see any clothes. The men said, “Remember, these are magic clothes.”
On July fourteenth, the king’s magic clothes were ready. After two men helped the king get dressed, the king rode into town. He wanted everyone to see his magic clothes. The people were surprised. There were no clothes to see! A small boy said, “The king isn’t wearing any clothes!” The king looked at himself and quickly rode back to his castle. He looked for the two men, but they and the gold were gone. “I was very foolish,” said the king.

The Clown Who Lost His Laugh

Once upon a time there was a clown. The clown was sad because he had lost his laugh. He didn’t think anything was funny anymore. So he went into the woods to see if he could find his laugh.
In the woods he met the three bears. He asked the bears if they knew what had happened to his laugh. The bears said that a girl with golden hair had come into their house and eaten porridge, broken a chair and slept in their beds. The bears said that the girl might have stolen the clown’s laugh. So the clown went further into the woods to look for the girl with golden hair.
As luck would have it the girl with golden hair was walking through the woods on her way to her grandmother’s house.
When the clown asked if she had seen his laugh she said that all she had see were three very angry, very hairy, growl, grizzly bears.
The clown thought this was very funny and started to laugh.

The Old Woman and The Sparrow

Once upon a time, there lived a kind hearted man and his wife. One morning, his wife found a poor little sparrow. She took it gently and fed it. To show its gratitude, the sparrow stayed with them and sang every morning. But there was an ill-tempered old woman who didn't like the sparrow. She cut the sparrow's tongue. That's why the bird flew away to its previous nest.

Knowing that their sparrow flew away, the kind man and his wife looked for the sparrow. They walked a long way, crossed the bridges, climbed the mountains and passed the woods.

At last, they could find the sparrow's nest. The sparrow welcomed them and provided a feast for them. Before they went home, the sparrow brought two baskets; one was large and looked heavy, and the other one was small and light. The sparrow asked them to choose only one. They chose the small and that was the best choice. There were many rolls of silk and piles of gold in it.

Being jealous, the ill-tempered old woman did the same thing as the kind man and his wife did. She chose the big basket which actually contained wasps and venomous crawlers, such as scorpions, centipedes, and other horrible creatures. Finally, aaathey stung and bit her to death.

The Magic Candle

One day a young wanderer got lost in a wood. Suddenly he was a light from an old hut. He knocked on the door, and old woman opened it. She was crying. She said that the devil had stolen her magic candle. The candle could grant anything she asked. The wanderer asked where the devil lived. “In a castle not far from here,” said the old woman.
The wanderer went to the castle. There she found the devil, but he was old and weak. Therefore when the wanderer grabbed the magic candle from the devil’s table and ran away, he couldn’t chase him.
But the wanderer was not a kind man. He didn’t return the candle to the old woman, but kept it for himself. He lit the candle and made a wish, “I want to go far away from here.” Suddenly the genies appeared and took him to a beautiful palace. There was a party in the palace. The wanderer wanted to make some money. So he lit the candle again and wished for some jewellery. He sold them to the guests and was soon making a lot of money. Then the Princess came to buy the jewellery, but there was nothing left.
The wanderer fell in love with her and asked her to marry him. The kind Princess said yes, and they got married the next day. In this happiness, the wanderer told the Princess about his adventure and the magic candle. Hearing that, the Princess got very angry. At night she lit the candle and wished that the wanderer disappeared.
In the morning, the wanderer awoke and found himself back in his ugly house in a village.

The Lion and the Mouse

Under the shady tree, Mr. Lion was lying asleep. Suddenly he was awakened by a mouse running over his face. “How dare you are!” he roared and raised his paw to kill the mouse.
“Please, Sir,” begged Miss Mouse. “Let me go and one day I may do something for you in return.”
“You help me! Ha … ha …,” laughed Mr. Lion but he let her go.
One day, Mr. Lion was caught in a net spread by hunters.
“I can’t get out!” he roared angrily.
“But I can help you,” said a tiny voice, and up ran Miss Mouse, who nibbled and gnawed at the ropes until the lion was free.
“There,” she said proudly. “If you had not let me go, I would not have found a way to help you.”
Momotaro

Once upon a time, there lived in Japan a peasant and his wife. They were sad couple because they had no children. They kept praying to their god pleading to give them a child.

While cutting wood by a stream one day, the man saw a large peach floating on the water. He ran to pick it up. His wife was excited because she had never seen such a large peach before. They were about to cut the peach when they heard a voice from inside.

The couples were surprised to do anything. The peach then cracked open, and there was a beautiful baby inside. The couples were very happy, of course. They named the baby Momotaro, which meant ‘peach boy’.

Momotaro grew up to be clever, courage young man. His parents loved him very much.

One day, Momotaro told his parents hat he was going to fight the pirates who always attacked their village. These pirates lived on an island a few kilometers away. Momotaro’s mother packed his food, and his father gave him a sword. Having blessed Momotaro, they sent him off on his journey.

Sailing on his boat, Momotaro met an eagle going in the same direction. They became good friends; soon, both of them arrived on the island of the pirates.

Momotaro drew out the sacred sword his father had given him and began to fight the pirates. The eagle flew over the thieves’ heads, pecking at their eyes. Finally, the pirates were defeated.

Momotaro brought home all the goods that pirates had stolen. His parents were proud of him, and they were overjoyed at his victory and save return.

Snail, Dragonfly and Toad

One day Snail, Dragonfly, and Toad decided to race around the lake. Dragonfly said, “I’m the fastest.” Toad said, “I think I’ll win. This is going to be easy.” Snail knew he was the slowest, but he wanted to race. He said, “I know I’m slow but I can walk for a long time. Let’s go!”
After Dragonfly flew for a short time, he got tired. He sat on a branch and slept. Toad hopped away, but after a short time he felt very hungry. He found and ate some delicious bugs. Snail slowly made his way around the lake at a steady pace. He said to himself, “It’s hard to be in a race. I know I’m slow. I’ll keep walking. I’ll just go and go.”
When Dragonfly woke up and Toad finished his lunch, they looked at the other side of the lake. Snail was there. He won the race! Dragonfly and Toad said, “This race was a silly idea.”
Snail just smiled and said to himself, “This race was great fun. Maybe that’s because I won!”

THE FAIRY TULIP

Once upon a time, there was a good old woman who lived in a little house. She had a bed in her beautiful striped tulip garden. One night, she was awakened by the sound of sweet singing and babies laughing. The sounds seemed to come from the tulip bed., but she could see nothing.
On the following night she was again awakened by the sweet singing and the babies' laughing. She arose and walked quietly to the garden. To her surprise, she saw a little fairy mother crooning and rocking athe flower like a cradle. In each cup of the flower lay a little fairy baby playing and laughing.
The old woman walked back to her house, and from that time on she never picked the flowers, nor did she allow her neighbours to touch them.

A Legend of Candy Cane

A candy maker in Indiana wanted to make a candy that would be a witness, so he made the Christmas Candy Cane. He incorporated several symbols for the birth, ministry, and death of Jesus Christ.
He began with a stick of pure white, hard candy. White to symbolize the Virgin Birth and the sinless nature of Jesus, and hard to symbolize the Solid Rock, the foundation of the church, and firmness of the promises of God.
The candy maker made the candy in the form of a "J" to represent the precious name of Jesus, who came to earth as our Savior. It also represents the staff of the "Good Shepherd" with which He reaches down into the ditches of the world to lift out the fallen lambs who, like all sheep, have gone astray.
Thinking that the candy was somewhat plain, the candy maker stained it with red stripes. He used the tree small stripes to show the stripes of the scourging Jesus received by which we are healed. The large red stripe was for the blood shed by Jesus on the Cross so that we could have the promise of eternal life, if only we put our faith and trust in Him. Unfortunately, the candy became known as a Candy Cane - a meaningless decoration seen at Christmas time. But the meaning is still there for those who "have eyes to see and ears to hear".
Silent Love

Once, there was a couple who love very much each other. From the very Begining, the girl's family objected strongly on her dating this guy. Saying that it has got to do with family background & that the girl will have to suffer for the rest of her life if she were to be with him.


Due to family's pressure, the couple quarrel very often. Though the girl love the guy deeply, but she always ask him: "How deep is your love for me?"

As the guy is not good with his words, this often cause the girl to be very upset. With that & the family's pressure, the girl often vent her anger on him. As for him, he only endure it in silence.

After a couple of years, the guy finally graduated & decided to further his studies in overseas. Before leaving, he proposed to the girl: "I'm not very good with words. But all I know is that I love you. If you allow me, I will take care of you for the rest of my life. As for your family, I'll try my best to talk them round. Will you marry me?"

The girl agreed, & with the guy's determination, the family finally gave in & agreed to let them get married. So before he leave, they got engaged.

The girl went out to the working society, whereas the guy was overseas, continuing his studies. They sent their love through emails & phone calls. Though it's hard, but both never thought of giving up.

One day, while the girl was on her way to work, she was knocked down by a car that lost control. When she woke up, she saw her parents beside her bed. She realised that she was badly injured. Seeing her mum crying, she wanted to comfort her. But she realized that all that could come out of her mouth was just a sigh. She has lost her voice......

The doctors says that the impact on her brain has caused her to lose her voice. Listening to her parents' comfort, but with nothing coming out from her, she broke down.

During the stay in hospital, besides silence cry,.....it's still just silence cry that companied her. Upon reaching home, everything seems to be the same. Except for the ringing tone of the phone. Which pierced into her heart everytime it rang. She does not wish to let the guy know. & not wanting to be a burden to him, she wrote a letter to him saying that she does not wish to wait any longer.

With that, she sent the ring back to him. In return, the guy sent millions & millions of reply, and countless of phonecalls,.. all the girl could do, besides crying, is still crying....

The parents decided to move away, hoping that she could eventually forget everything & be happy.

With a new environment, the girl learn sign language & started a new life. Telling herself everyday that she must forget the guy. One day, her friend came & told her that he's back. She asked her friend not to let him know what happened to her. Since then, there wasn't anymore news of him.

A year has passed & her friend came with an envelope, containing an invitation card for the guy's wedding. The girl was shattered. When she open the letter, she saw her name in it instead.

When she was about to ask her friend what's going on, she saw the guy standing in front of her. He used sign language telling her "I've spent a year's time to learn sign language. Just to let you know that I've not forgotten our promise. Let me have the chance to be your voice. I Love You. With that, he slipped the ring back into her finger. The girl finally smiled.


sangkuriang
Sangkuriang Long time ago in West Java, lived a beautiful girl named Dayang Sumbi. She was also smart and clever. Her beauty and intelligence made a prince from the heavenly kingdom of Kahyangan desire her as his wife. The prince asked permission from his father to marry Dayang Sumbi. People from Kahyangan could never live side by side with humans, but his father approved on one condition, when they had a child, the prince would transform into a dog. The prince accepted the condition. They get married and lived happily in the woods until Dayang Sumbi gave birth to a baby boy. The prince then changed into a dog named Tumang. Their son is named Sangkuriang. He was very smart and handsome like his father. Everyday, he hunted animals and looked for fruits to eat. One day, when he was hunting, Sangkuriang accidentally killed Tumang. His arrow missed the deer he was targeting and hit Tumang instead. He went home and tells her mother about the dog. “What?” Dayang Sumbi was appalled. Driven by sadness and anger, she grabbed a weaving tool and hit Sangkuriang’s head with it. Dayang Sumbi was so sad; she didn’t pay any attention to Sangkuriang and started to cry. Sangkuriang feel sad and also confused. How can his mother love a dog more than him? Sangkuriang then decided to go away from their home and went on a journey. In the morning, Dayang Sumbi finally stopped crying. She started to feel better, so she went to find Sangkuriang. But her son was no where to be found. She looked everywhere but still couldn’t find him. Finally, she went home with nothing. She was exhausted. She fell asleep, and in her dream, she meets her husband. “Dayang Sumbi, don’t be sad. Go look for my body in the woods and get the heart. Soak it with water, and use the water to bathe, and you will look young forever,” said the prince in her dream. After bathing with the water used to soak the dog’s heart, Dayang Sumbi looked more beautiful and even younger. And time passed by. Sangkuriang on his journey stopped at a village and met and fell in love with a beautiful girl.He didn’t realize that the village was his homeland and the beautiful girl was his own mother, Dayang Sumbi. Their love grew naturally and he asked the girl to marry him. One day, Sangkuriang was going on a hunt. He asked Dayang Sumbi to fix the turban on his head. Dayang Sumbi was startled when she saw a scar on his head at the same place where she, years ago, hit Sangkuriang on the head. After the young man left, Dayang Sumbi prayed for guidance. After praying, she became convinced that the young man was indeed her missing son. She realized that she had to do something to prevent Sangkuriang from marrying her. But she did not wish to disappoint him by cancelling the wedding. So, although she agreed to marry Sangkuriang, she would do so only on the condition that he provides her with a lake and built a beautiful boat, all in one night. Sangkuriang accepted this condition without a doubt. He had spent his youth studying magical arts. After the sun went down, Sangkuriang went to the hill. Then he called a group of genie to build a dam around Citarum River. Then, he commands the genies to cut down trees and build a boat. A few moments before dawn, Sangkuriang and his genie servants almost finished the boat. Dayang Sumbi, who had been spying on him, realised that Sangkuriang would fulfill the condition she had set. Dayang Sumbi immediately woke all the women in the village and asked them to wave a long red scarf. All the women in the village were waving red scarf, making it look as if dawn was breaking. Deceived by false dawn, the cock crowed and farmers rose for the new day. Sangkuriang’s genie servants immediately dropped their work and ran for cover from the sun, which they feared. Sangkuriang grew furious. With all his anger, he kicked the unfinished boat. The boat flew and landed on a valley. The boat then became a mountain, called Mount Tangkuban Perahu (Tangkuban means upturned or upside down, and Perahu means boat). With his power, he destroyed the dam. The water drained from the lake becoming a wide plain and nowadays became a city called Bandung (from the word Bendung, which means Dam).
The Princess and The Pea

There once was a prince who wanted to marry a princess, but it had to be real princess. So he went all over the world looking for a real princess. Everywhere he met young ladies told him they were real princess, but could never be completely sure that this was true. There was always something about them that did not seem quite right. And so, after along time, the prince went back home to his parents and was very sad.

One evening there was a terrible storm. It rained heavily and there was thunder and lightning in the sky above the royal castle. Then there was a knock at the castle gate. The old king went out to see who it could be.

A princess was standing outside the gate. The rain ran down over her hair and clothes and into her shoes. She told the king that she was a real princess, and he asked her to come inside.

“Well, said the old queen. We’ll soon find out if that is true. She went into the guest bedroom and took the mattress and blanket of the bed. Then she put a little green pea on the bed. She put twenty mattress on top of the pea, and then twenty mattress on top of the pea, and then twenty blankets on top of the mattress. This was where the princess was going to spend the night.

The next morning the queen asked the princess how she had slept.

“oh, it was terrible” answered the princess. Í didn’t close my eyes all night. I don’t know what was in my bed, but I lay on something hard, and now I am black and blue all over. It was quite a terrible night.”

Now, the king, the queen and the prince could be sure that this was a real princess she had felt the little pea trough twenty mattresses and twenty blankets. Only a real princess will be able to do that.

So the prince married the princess and the pea was put in a museum for everyone to see, unless someone has taken it, it’s still there today.

Three Fish

Once three fish lived in a pond. One evening, some fishermen passed by the pond and saw the fish. ‘This pond is full of fish’, they told each other excitedly. ‘we have never fished here before. We must come back tomorrow morning with our nets and catch these fish!’ So saying, the fishermen left.

When the eldest of the three fish heard this, he was troubled. He called the other fish together and said, ‘Did you hear what the fishermen said? W must leave this pond at once. The fishermen will return tomorrow and kill us all!’ The second of the three fish agreed. ‘You are right’, he said. ‘We must leave the pond.’

But the youngest fish laughed. ‘You are worrying without reason’, he said. ‘We have lived in this pond all our lives, and no fisherman has ever come here. Why should these men return? I am not going anywhere – my luck will keep me safe’.

The eldest of the fish left the pond that very evening with his entire family. The second fish saw the fishermen coming in the distance early next morning and left the pond at once with all his family. The third fish refused to leave even then.

The fishermen arrived and caught all the fish left in the pond. The third fish’s luck did not help him – he was caught and killed.

Jack and the beanstalk

Once upon a time there was a poor widow who had an only son named Jack. They were so poor that they didn’t have anything except a cow. When the cow had grown too old, his mother sent Jack to the market to sell it. On the way to the market, Jack met a butcher who had some beautiful beans in his hand. The butcher told the boy that the beans were of great value and persuaded the silly fad to sell the cow for the beans.
Jack brought them happily. When he told his mother about this, his mother became so angry that she threw the beans out of the window.
When Jack woke up in the morning, he felt the sun shining into a part of his room but all the rest was quite dark and shady.
So he jumped to the window. What did he see? The beanstalk grew up quite close past Jack’s window. He opened the window and jumped to the beanstalk which ran up just like a big ladder.
He climbed … and climbed till at last he reached the sky. While looking around, he saw a very huge castle. He was very amazed.
Then Jack walked along the path leading to the castle. There was a big tall woman on the doorstep. Jack greeted her and asked for the giantess mercy to give him breakfast, because he felt very hungry. Although the giantess grumbled at first, finally she gave Jack a hunk of bread and cheese and a jug of milk.
Jack hadn’t finished when the whole house, began to tremble with the noise of someone’s coming. “Oh! It’s my husband!” cried the giantess. “What on earth shall I do?”
Hastily the giantess opened a very big cupboard and hid Jack there.

The Silver Key

There was a traveler going to a distant town. When he reached the town it was almost midnight. He came to an inn but it locked from the inside. He knocked at the door. “Who are you?” asked a voice from inside the inn. “What do you want? The door cannot be unlocked at such an odd hour”. The traveler needed rest, food and shelter. He said, “Please, innkeeper, unlock the door. See, how cold outside!”

“It’s a strange lock and can be opened only with a silver key,” replied the innkeeper. The traveler passed a silver coin through a slit in the door, got the door unlocked and entered into the inn.
“I have left one of my two bags outside,” said the traveler. “Will you please bring it in?”
No sooner had the innkeeper gone out than traveler locked the door from inside. The greedy innkeeper was now shut out. He requested the traveler to unlock the door. “I’m helpless,” replied the traveler. “It’s a strange lock. It can be opened only with a silver key. The innkeeper was obliged to push through the slit a silver coin. The traveler got back his rupee and unlocked the door.
A Boy and an Apple Tree
One time, there lived a big apple tree and a boy who liked to play around under the apple tree everyday. He was happy to climb up to the top of the tree, eat the fruit, a nap in the shade of the shade leaves. The boy loved the apple tree. Similarly, the apple tree is very love little boy too.
Time flies. The boy had grown big and no longer playing with the apple tree every day. One day he went to the apple tree. His face looked sad.
“Come over here and play with me,” said the apple tree.
“I’m not a little kid playing with the tree again,” replied the boy.
“I want to have toys, but I’m not having money to buy it.”
The tree replied, “Sorry, but I did not have money … but you can take all of my fruit and sell it. You can get the money to buy toys. “
The boy was very happy. He grabbed all the apples on the tree and left happily. However, after that the boy never came back. The tree was sad again.
One day the boy returned again. Tree was so excited.
“Come play with me anymore,” said the apple tree.
“I do not have the time,” replied the boy.
“I have to work for my family. We need a house for shelter. Will you help me? “
“Sorry, but I don’t have a house. But you can cut down all of my branches to build your house”, said the apple tree. Then the boy cut all of the branches and twigs that apple tree and left happily.
The tree was also felt happy to see the boy happy, but the boy never came back again. The tree was lonely and sad again.
One hot summer day, the boy returned again. The tree was delighted.
“Come and play again with me,” the tree said.
“I’m sad,” said the boy.
“I’m old and want to live in peace. I want to go on vacation and sailing. Will you give me a boat to cruise? “
“Sorry, but I don’t have a boat, but you may cut my trunk and use it to create a ship that you want. Go sailing and have fun. “Later, the boy cut the tree trunk and makes a dream ship.
He then went sailing and never again came to the apple tree.
Finally, the boy returned again after all these years later.
“I’m sorry my son,” said the apple tree.
“I do not have apple for you anymore.”
“It’s okay. I also have no teeth to bite your fruit, “replied the boy.
“I don’t have a trunk and branches you can climb,” said the apple tree.
“Now, I’m too old for that,” replied the boy.
“I really do not have anything more can I give to you. What remains is my roots old and dying, “said the apple tree with tears.
“I do not need anything else right now,” said the boy.
“I just need a place to rest. I was so tired after all these years. “
“Oooh, very nice. Do you know? The root of old trees is the best place to lie down and rest. Come, lay in the arms of my roots and rest in peace. “
The boy lay in the arms of tree roots.
The tree was glad and smiled with tears in his eyes

Lemosolai

As a boy, Lemosolai wondered about school. He’d passed the acacia tree where a white lady was writing lessons on a chalkboard. His father thought that school was unless. He needed his four sons to herd the cattle. A law new was passed that every family must send one child to school. So his father picked on his youngest son, Lemosolai, only six to go.

He was discouraged from using Maa the Masai language. But very quickly he learnt English writing on sand with a stick; he learnt to count using stacks of sticks.

He won a scholarship to a high school in the US. He was very impressed with what he saw. But his fellow students also were impressed with Lemosolai. He made them feel proud of the little that he had.

On one occasion, he asked his fellow students, ‘What is civilization?’ They were puzzled. Then he said, ‘Are people who live in big mansions more civilized than my mother who lives in a cow-dung hut?’

While he learnt to speak, read and write English his classmates learnt many useful values. A students whose mother refused to buy him spikes for running thought of Lemosolai’s values. While I want a pair of spikes there there are many people who can’t afford shoes.
Ali Baba
Once upon a time there were 40 cruel thieves who put their stolen money and treasures in a cave. They went in the cave by saying ”Open Sesame” to the cave entrance. A poor person, named Ali Baba saw them while they were doing that, so he heard the opening word. After they left, he went toward the cave and opened it. Suddenly he found a very large quantity of money and golden treasures. He took some of it and went back home. After that he became a rich man and his brother wanted to know how he became rich.
Ali Baba turned into the richest man in his village. His evil brother was really jealous of him, and wanted to know how he could get such a lot of money. Therefore, when Ali Baba went to the cave again to take some more money, his brother followed him. He saw everything, and decided to go back the next day to take some money for himself. The next morning he found a lot of money in the cave, and he wanted to take all of them. Unfortunately, when he was busy carrying the money to his house, the thieves came. The boss of the thieves asked him how he knew about the cave. He told everything, but unluckily they killed him and went to Ali Baba’s house.
After finding Ali Baba’s house, they made a plan to kill him the following night. Some of the thieves hid in big jars, and the boss pretended that he was a merchant who wanted to sell the jars to Ali Baba. Ali Baba who was a kind man invited the boss of the thief to have lunch together.
After lunch they took a rest. Luckily, the house maid went out of the house, and found that there were thieves inside the jars. She finally boiled hot oil and poured it into the jars to kill all of them. The boss of the thieves was caught, and put into prison.
Ali Baba was saved from the danger, and he finally lived happily ever after with his maid who became his wife shortly after.

Cinderella


Once upon a time there lived an unhappy young girl. Her mother was dead and her father had married a widow with two daughters. Her stepmother didn't like her one little bit. All her kind thoughts and loving touches were for her own daughters. Nothing was too good for them - dresses, shoes, delicious food, soft beds, and every home comfort. But, for the poor unhappy girl, there was nothing at all. No dresses, only her stepsisters’ hand-me-downs. No lovely dishes, nothing but scraps. No rest and no comfort. She had to work hard all day. Only when evening came was she allowed to sit for a while by the fire, near the cinders. That’s why everybody called her Cinderella.

Cinderella used to spend long hours all alone talking to the cat. The cat said, “Miaow“, which really meant, “Cheer up! You have something neither of your stepsisters has and that is beauty.” It was quite true. Cinderella, even dressed in old rags, was a lovely girl. While her stepsisters, no matter how splendid and elegant their clothes, were still clumsy, lumpy and ugly and always would be.

One day, beautiful new dresses arrived at the house. A ball was to be held at the palace and the stepsisters were getting ready to go. Cinderella didn't even dare ask if she could go too. She knew very well what the answer would be: “You? You're staying at home to wash the dishes, scrub the floors and turn down the beds for your stepsisters.” They will come home tired and very sleepy. Cinderella sighed, “Oh dear, I'm so unhappy!” and the cat murmured “Miaow.”

Suddenly something amazing happened. As Cinderella was sitting all alone, there was a burst of light and a fairy appeared. “Don't be alarmed, Cinderella,” said the fairy. “I know you would love to go to the ball. And so you shall!” “How can I, dressed in rags?” Cinderella replied. “The servants will turn me away!”

The fairy smiled. With a flick of her magic wand Cinderella found herself wearing the most beautiful dress she had ever seen. “Now for your coach,” said the fairy; "A real lady would never go to a ball on foot! Quick! Get me a pumpkin!” “Oh of course,” said Cinderella, rushing away. Then the fairy turned to the cat. “You, bring me seven mice, and, remember they must be alive!”

Cinderella soon returned with the pumpkin and the cat with seven mice he had caught in the cellar. With a flick of the magic wand the pumpkin turned into a sparkling coach and the mice became six white horses, while the seventh mouse turned into a coachman in a smart uniform and carrying a whip. Cinderella could hardly believe her eyes.

“You shall go to the ball Cinderella. But remember! You must leave at midnight. That is when my spell ends. Your coach will turn back into a pumpkin and the horses will become mice again. You will be dressed in rags and wearing clogs instead of these glass slippers! Do you understand?” Cinderella smiled and said, “Yes, I understand!”

Cinderella had a wonderful time at the ball until she heard the first stroke of midnight! She remembered what the fairy had said, and without a word of goodbye she slipped from the Prince’s arms and ran down the steps. As she ran she lost one of her slippers, but not for a moment did she dream of stopping to pick it up! If the last stroke of midnight were to sound... oh... what a disaster that would be! Out she fled and vanished into the night.

The Prince, who was now madly in love with her, picked up the slipper and said to his ministers, “Go and search everywhere for the girl whose foot this slipper fits. I will never be content until I find her!” So the ministers tried the slipper on the foot of every girl in the land until only Cinderella was left.

“That awful untidy girl simply cannot have been at the ball,” snapped the stepmother. “Tell the Prince he ought to marry one of my two daughters! Can't you see how ugly Cinderella is?”

But, to everyone’s amazement, the shoe fitted perfectly.

Suddenly the fairy appeared and waved her magic wand. In a flash, Cinderella appeared in a splendid dress, shining with youth and beauty. Her stepmother and stepsisters gaped at her in amazement, and the ministers said, “Come with us Cinderella! The Prince is waiting for you.“

So Cinderella married the Prince and lived happily ever. As for the cat, he just said “Miaow!”














                                

NYI RORO KIDUL

This is the pricise story of "The Queen in Southern Sea."

Pajajaran kingdom lied in West Java from 1333 AD to 1630 AD and it was conquered by the Islamic kingdom of Mataram from Central Java.

Pajajaran's greatest ruler was Prabu (King) Siliwangi. He had a bride in his harems and a very beautiful daughter was born between he and the bride. The girl was called Dewi Kadita and the beauties of Dewi Kadita and her mother made other harems jealous, and they had a conspiracy against them.

The harems used some kind of black magic to make the bodies of Dewi Kadita and her mother to be filthy and they turn to be so ugly and disgusting. Prabu Siliwangi got angry against the mother and the daughter and forced them to get out of the palace, as they were thought to be bad luck for the kingdom.
They were wandering around the country and one day the mother died. Dewi Kadita was walking in deep sadness, until she reached the Southern Shore (the shore of Indian Ocean) .

She sat above a rock in a stove shape and when she was sleeping, she had a vision that she must have to jump into the water to help herself out of the curse.
When she woke up, with no second thought, Dewi Kadita jumped into the sea. She returned to a beautiful lady as she was but then she realized that she was not a human anymore. She turned into a supernatural form of life. Since then, she ruled all creatures in the southern coast of Java Island, and she was known as Nyi Roro Kidul (Javanese of "Lady of South Sea"). To avenge her father, she became the primary bride for Mataram kings , the rival of Pajajaran kingdom. It's believed for centuries, even until now.

The river of Bengawan Solo, which started from the mystical mountain of Merapi in Central Java and leads to Indian Ocean, is said as the tunnel used by Nyi Roro Kidul to access Java.
And she traps males in green costume who are walking on the shore. They are swallowed by the wave and missing or dead but he will become her guard or (maybe) male.

This either can be the ancient Javanese explanation on the vacuum effect from underwater canyons that lie in the southern shore of Java, where the depth of the ocean's bed on the shore can reach more than 0-200 meters.


In psychological analysis, Nyi Roro Kidul can be a parallel of the revenge of a female who was once rejected by a male. Once she regains her power and beauty, she takes any man she wants.
And yet, I can't talk my point of view to Javanese elders.



TANGKUBAN PARAHU(Downside Boat)

Long time ago in the West Java, lived a woman named Dayang Sumbi. She lived alone and she was thirsting for a husband or a live-friend.
One day when quilting, her quilt fell off from her house. Then she prayed to gods "If a man picks up my quilt, he will be my husband. If a woman, she will be my sister." Then, a male dog picked it up. So Dayang Sumbi got married to the dog, and called him Tumang.

Dayang Sumbi gave a birth to a baby, named him Sangkuriang, but never tell him who is his father.
One day, Sangkuriang was hunting with Tumang in the forest and he found nothing. He blamed Tumang for the failure and killed Tumang. When Dayang Sumbi knew that, she hit Sangkuriang's head with a big spoon and expelled him.

Many years later, the wandering Sangkuriang found a house in the forest, and an old beautiful woman was in the house. The woman, Dayang Sumbi, recognized the adventurer as Sangkuriang.
Sangkuriang forced her to marry him and she told that Sangkuriang had to build a vast boat for their honeymoon, just in one night.
In the night, Sangkuriang called his friends, ghosts and forest fairies to help him. Feared the boat to complete, Dayang Sumbi asked another women in the nearby forest to help her. So the women punched the grains with grains puncher to make noise which disturbed the ghosts and fairies.
The morning came before they completed the boat,  and the ghosts and the fairies ran away, leaving Sangkuriang. Enraged, Sangkuriang kicked away the boat to the downside, and it turned into a mountain, called Tangkuban Parahu, which stood in the north of my city Bandung, until now.

Cerita rakyat from West Java
Lutung Kasarung
Prabu Tapa Agung had led a kingdom in West Java for a long time. He was getting old and therefore wanted to choose a successor. But unfortunately, he had no son. He thought of choosing one of his daughters, Purbararang and Purbasari. But it wasn’t an easy choice. They were both very pretty and smart. The only difference was their temperament. Purbararang was rude and dishonest, while Purbasari was kind and caring. With those considerations, Prabu Tapa Agung finally chose Purbasari to be his successor.
Purbararang didn’t agree with her father’s decision. “It’s supposed to be me, Father. I’m the eldest daughter!” Purbararang said. Prabu Tapa Agung smiled. “Purbararang, to be a queen takes more than age. There are many other qualities that one must possess,” explained Prabu Tapa Agung wisely. “What does Purbasari have that I don’t?” Purbararang pouted. “You’ll find out when Purbasari has replaced me,” Prabu Tapa Agung answered.
After the discussion, Purbararang went back to her room. “Is there something wrong?” asked Indrajaya. Indrajaya is Purbararang’s future husband. “I’m upset! Father chose Purbasari as his successor and not me! I have to do something!” Purbararang said. Driven mad by her anger, she came to a witch and asked her to send rash all over Purbasari’s body. Before going to bed, Purbasari started to feel itch all over her body. She tried applying powder to her body, but it’s no use. Instead, the itching grew even worse. She didn’t want to scratch it, but she just couldn’t help it. In the next morning, there were scratch mark all over Purbasari’s body. “What happened to you?” asked Purbararang, pretending to be concerned. “I don’t know, sis. Last night, my body suddenly felt very itchy. I scratched and scratched, and this is what happened,” Purbasari answered. Purbararang shook her head. “You must have done something really awful. You’ve been punished by the gods!”
That day, the whole kingdom was scandalized. “What have you done, Purbasari?” demanded Prabu Tapa Agung. Purbasari shook her head. “I didn’t do anything that would upset the gods, Father,” she answered. “Then how can you explain what happened to your body?” Prabu Tapa Agung asked again. “If you don’t confess, I’ll banish you to the woods.” Purbasari took a deep breath. “Like I said before, I didn’t do anything wrong. And I’d rather be thrown into the woods than to confess to a deed I didn’t commit.”
After a short discussion with his advisor, Prabu Tapa Agung ordered Purbasari to be moved to the woods. Purbasari was very sad, but she couldn’t do anything to defy her father’s order. She was accompanied to the woods by a messenger. He built a simple hut for Purbasari. After the messenger left, suddenly a black monkey came to Purbasari’s hut. He carried a bunch of bananas. From behind him, some animals looked on. “Are the bananas for me?’ Purbasari asked. The black monkey nodded, as if he understood what Purbasari said. Purbasari took the bananas with pleasure. She also said thanks. The other animals that were looking on also seemed to smile. “Are you willing to be my friend?” Purbasari asked them. All the animals nodded happily. Although she was living by herself in the woods, Purbasari never lacked of supplies. Everyday, there were always animals bringing her fruits and fish to eat.
A long time had passed since Purbasari was banished to the woods, but her body still itched. At some places, her skin was even ulcerating. What am I supposed to do?” Purbasari sighed. The monkey who was sitting next to her stayed still, there were tears in his eyes. He hoped Purbasari would remain patient and strong.
One night, on a full moon, the monkey took Purbasari to a valley. There is a pond with hot spring water. The monkey suddenly spoke, “The water of this pond will heal your skin,” he said. Purbasari was surprised, ”You can talk? Who are you?” she asked. “You’ll find out, in time,” the monkey said. Purbasari didn’t want to force the monkey. She then walked to the pond. She bathed there. After a few hours, Purbasari walked out of the pond. She was shocked to see her face reflected on the clear pond water. Her face was beautiful again, with smooth and clean skin. Purbasari observed her entire body. There were no traces of any skin ailments. “I’m cured! I’m cured!” Purbasari shouted in joy. She quickly offered thanks to the gods and also to the monkey.
The news of Purbasari’s condition quickly spread to the kingdom, irritating Purbararang. She then accompanied by Indrajaya go to the woods to see Purbasari. Purbasari asked if she would be allowed to go home. Purbararang said she would let Purbasari return to the palace if Purbasari’s hair were longer than hers. Purbararang then let her hair down. It was so long, it almost touched the ground. But it turned out that Purbasari’s hair was twice longer than Purbararang’s hair.
“Fine, so your hair is longer than mine.” Purbararang admitted. “But there is one more condition you must fulfill, do you have a future husband who is handsomer than mine?” said Purbararang as she walked toward Indrajaya. Purbasari felt miserable. She didn’t have a future husband yet. So, without much thought, she pulled the black monkey beside her.
Purbararang and Indrajaya burst out, but their laughter didn’t last long. The monkey meditates and suddenly transformed into a very handsome young man, a lot more handsome than Indrajaya. “I’m a prince from a kingdom far away. I was cursed to be a monkey because of a mistake I committed. I could regain my true form only if there’s a girl who would be willing to be my wife,” said the young man.
Finally, Purbararang gave up. She accepted Purbasari as the queen, and also confessed everything she had done. “Please forgive me. Please don’t punish me,” Purbararang said, asking for forgiveness. Instead of being angry, Purbasari smiled. “I forgive you, sis,” she said. Soon after, Purbasari become queen. Beside her was the handsome prince, the former monkey known as Lutung Kasarung.***
Cerita rakyat from West Java
Sangkuriang
Long time ago in West Java, lived a beautiful girl named Dayang Sumbi. She was also smart and clever. Her beauty and intelligence made a prince from the heavenly kingdom of Kahyangan desire her as his wife. The prince asked permission from his father to marry Dayang Sumbi. People from Kahyangan could never live side by side with humans, but his father approved on one condition, when they had a child, the prince would transform into a dog. The prince accepted the condition.
They get married and lived happily in the woods until Dayang Sumbi gave birth to a baby boy. The prince then changed into a dog named Tumang. Their son is named Sangkuriang. He was very smart and handsome like his father. Everyday, he hunted animals and looked for fruits to eat. One day, when he was hunting, Sangkuriang accidentally killed Tumang. His arrow missed the deer he was targeting and hit Tumang instead. He went home and tells her mother about the dog. “What?” Dayang Sumbi was appalled. Driven by sadness and anger, she grabbed a weaving tool and hit Sangkuriang’s head with it. Dayang Sumbi was so sad; she didn’t pay any attention to Sangkuriang and started to cry.
Sangkuriang feel sad and also confused. How can his mother love a dog more than him? Sangkuriang then decided to go away from their home and went on a journey. In the morning, Dayang Sumbi finally stopped crying. She started to feel better, so she went to find Sangkuriang. But her son was no where to be found. She looked everywhere but still couldn’t find him. Finally, she went home with nothing. She was exhausted. She fell asleep, and in her dream, she meets her husband. “Dayang Sumbi, don’t be sad. Go look for my body in the woods and get the heart. Soak it with water, and use the water to bathe, and you will look young forever,” said the prince in her dream. After bathing with the water used to soak the dog’s heart, Dayang Sumbi looked more beautiful and even younger.
And time passed by. Sangkuriang on his journey stopped at a village and met and fell in love with a beautiful girl.He didn't realize that the village was his homeland and the beautiful girl was his own mother, Dayang Sumbi. Their love grew naturally and he asked the girl to marry him. One day, Sangkuriang was going on a hunt. He asked Dayang Sumbi to fix the turban on his head. Dayang Sumbi was startled when she saw a scar on his head at the same place where she, years ago, hit Sangkuriang on the head.
After the young man left, Dayang Sumbi prayed for guidance. After praying, she became convinced that the young man was indeed her missing son. She realized that she had to do something to prevent Sangkuriang from marrying her. But she did not wish to disappoint him by cancelling the wedding. So, although she agreed to marry Sangkuriang, she would do so only on the condition that he provides her with a lake and built a beautiful boat, all in one night.
Sangkuriang accepted this condition without a doubt. He had spent his youth studying magical arts. After the sun went down, Sangkuriang went to the hill. Then he called a group of genie to build a dam around Citarum River. Then, he commands the genies to cut down trees and build a boat. A few moments before dawn, Sangkuriang and his genie servants almost finished the boat.
Dayang Sumbi, who had been spying on him, realised that Sangkuriang would fulfill the condition she had set. Dayang Sumbi immediately woke all the women in the village and asked them to wave a long red scarf. All the women in the village were waving red scarf, making it look as if dawn was breaking. Deceived by false dawn, the cock crowed and farmers rose for the new day.
Sangkuriang’s genie servants immediately dropped their work and ran for cover from the sun, which they feared. Sangkuriang grew furious. With all his anger, he kicked the unfinished boat. The boat flew and landed on a valley. The boat then became a mountain, called Mount Tangkuban Perahu (Tangkuban means upturned or upside down, and Perahu means boat). With his power, he destroyed the dam. The water drained from the lake becoming a wide plain and nowadays became a city called Bandung (from the word Bendung, which means Dam).***
Cerita rakyat from West Java
Telaga Warna
Long time ago there was a kingdom in West Java. The kingdom was ruled by a king called Prabu. He was a kind and wise king. Under Prabu’s leadership, the kingdom grew into a prosperous kingdom. There’s no hunger in the kingdom. Everybody in the kingdom loved their king. But, there’s one problem. The king and his queen hadn’t got any children. It made the couple very sad. That was why Prabu decided to go to the jungle. There, he meditated and prayed to God. Everyday he begged for a child. His dream finally came true. A few months later, the queen got pregnant. All people in the kingdom felt very happy. They sent many presents to the palace to express their happiness. Nine months later a baby girl was born. The baby grew as a beautiful teenager then.
Prabu and his queen loved their daughter so much. They gave what ever she wanted. It made the princess grew into a spoiled girl. When her wish couldn’t be fulfilled, she would be very angry. She even said bad things often. Even though the princess behaved badly, her parents still loved her, and so did the people in the kingdom.
Time passed and the princess grew more beautiful. In a few days, the princess would be seventeen years old. That’s why people of that kingdom brought many presents for her. They bring gold and beautiful jewelries. Prabu collected the presents. Then Prabu stored them in a special room. Some times he would take them to give to his people who needed it. Prabu only took a few gold and jewels. Then he brought them to a goldsmith. “Please make a necklace for my daughter,” said Prabu. “My pleasure, Your Majesty,” the goldsmith replied. The goldsmith worked with all his heart and his ability. He wanted to create the most beautiful necklace for the princess.
The birthday came. People gathered in the palace field. Then Prabu and the queen appeared. They waved to their beloved people. Cheers were loud and louder when the princess appeared. Everybody admired her beauty. Prabu got up from his chair and took a small pillow. A beautiful necklace was on the pillow. Prabu took that necklace. “My beloved daughter, today I give this necklace to you. This necklace is a gift from people in this country. They love you so much. They presented it for you to express their happiness, because you have growing to a woman,” said Prabu. The princess accepted the necklace. She looked at the necklace in a glance. “I don’t want this necklace! It’s ugly!” shouted the princess as she threw the necklace away. The necklace hit the floor and was broken. The gold and jewels were spread out on the floor.
No body dared to speak. They never thought that their beloved princess would do such a cruel thing. In their silence, people heard the queen crying. Every woman felt sad and began crying too. Then everybody was crying. Suddenly, from the middle of the field, a spring emerged. It quickly became a pool. The palace was getting flooded. Soon the place became a big lake.
Nowadays the water on that lake is not as full as before. There is only a small lake now. People called the lake Telaga Warna (it means lake of colour). On a bright day, the lake is full of colour. These colors come from the reflections of forest, plants, flowers, and sky around the lake. But some people said that the colours are from the princess’ necklace, which spreads at the bottom of the lake.***
Cerita rakyat from East Java
Cindelaras
Raden Putra was the king of Jenggala kingdom. He had a beautiful queen and concubine. Unlike the queen, the concubine had bad personalities. She was envious and jealous with the queen, so she planned to make the queen leave the palace. The concubine then asked the royal healer to help her in her plan. One day, the concubine pretended to be ill. Raden Putra called the royal healer to give the concubine treatments. “What is her disease?” Raden Putra asked the royal healer. “I’m very sorry, My Majesty. She is sick because the queen put poison in her meal,” the royal healer lied.
Raden Putra was shock and angry to hear the explanation. He called the queen and asked her if the story was true. Of course the queen denied, but Raden Putra won’t listen. “Please Your Majesty, have mercy. I really didn’t do anything,” cried the queen in her tears. Raden Putra’s anger ended in a decision. The queen should be banished to the woods and terminated. He did not know that the queen was already pregnant. Raden Putra commanded one of his general to do the punishment. The queen was banished to the woods, but the wise general didn’t have the heart to kill her. He built a simple house in the woods for her. On his way back to the palace, he smeared his sword with rabbit blood, so Raden Putra would believe that he had killed the queen.
After the general left, the queen lived by herself in the woods. Several months later, she gave birth to a healthy baby boy. The baby was named Cindelaras. He grew up as a nice, healthy, and handsome boy. One day, while Cindelaras helped her mother to collect some fire woods, an eagle dropped an egg. Cindelaras brought the egg to be brooded by a chicken behind their house. The egg hatched into a chick and then it slowly became a strong rooster. The rooster is no ordinary rooster. The rooster could sing. Every morning, the rooster woke Cindelaras up with its beautiful song, “My master is Cindelaras. His house is in the woods. He’s the son of Raden Putra.” The rooster often sang that song.
Cindelaras always woke up early in the morning and listen happily to his rooster’s song. He didn’t realize the meaning of the song until one day, he started to think. “Who is Raden Putra?” he asked his mother. The queen then told him the whole story. She also told him why they were banned from the kingdom and lived in the woods. Cindelaras was very surprised. He decided to go to the palace to meet the king, his father. Cindelaras asked her mother’s permission to go to the kingdom and to tell the king what really happened. He also brought his rooster that grew bigger and stronger each day.
On his way, Cindelaras stopped at a village. There, he met some people who were involved in cockfighting. They challenge him to see how strong his rooster was. “If your rooster wins, you’ll get a reward,” said the man who challenged him. Cindelaras accepted the challenge. In a few minutes, his rooster defeated the opponent’s rooster. He was challenged again by other man, and one more time, his rooster won. He won again and again.
The news about Cindelaras’ rooster quickly spread to the whole Jenggala kingdom and made Raden Putra curious. So, he invited Cindelaras to the palace. “What is your name, boy?” Raden Putra asked as Cindelaras arrived in the palace. “My name is Cindelaras, Your Majesty,” Cindelaras answered. He felt both thrilled and happy to see Raden Putra.
Raden Putra challenged Cindelaras with one condition. If Raden Putra’s rooster won, Cindelaras’ head would be cut off. But if Cindelaras’ rooster won, Raden Putra would share half of his wealth. Cindelaras accepted the condition. The competition was held in the front yard of the palace. The two roosters fought bravely. But in just a few minutes, Cindelaras’ rooster won the fight! Raden Putra shook his head and stared at Cindelaras from his seat, “That rooster is no ordinary rooster, and the boy is not an ordinaty boy either. Who is he exactly?” he thought. Raden Putra was about to asked when suddenly Cindelaras’ rooster sang the song, “My master is Cindelaras. His house is in the woods. He’s the son of Raden Putra.”
Raden Putra was surprised. “Is it true?” he asked. “Yes, My Majesty. My name is Cindelaras and my mother was the queen,” said Cindelaras. Raden putra called the general who had banished the queen. The general then confessed that he never killed the queen. Later, the royal healer also admitted his mistake. Raden Putra was so shocked. He immediately went to the woods to pick up the queen. Ever since, Cindelaras and his parents lived happily together. As for the concubine, she was sent to the jail as punishment.***

Cerita rakyat from East Java
Jaka Tarub and Nawang Wulan
Jaka Tarub was a handsome and diligent young man. He lived in a village near a lake. One day, when Jaka Tarub passed the lake, he heard some giggles and laughs of some girls who were bathing in the lake. He was curious, so he peeped through the bushes. There were seven beautiful girls in the lake. They’re fairies from the heavenly kingdom of kahyangan. Jaka Tarub saw a scarf near the bushes. It belonged to one of the fairies. Jaka Tarub then took it and hid it.
Crack!!! Accidentally, Jaka Tarub stepped on a twig. “There’s someone!” said one of the fairies. “Let’s get back. Hurry!” she said. They pulled over and wear their scarf. “Where is my scarf?” one of the fairies couldn’t find her scarf. She was the youngest fairy called Nawang Wulan. They tried to search for it, but it was no where to be found. “We’re sorry, Wulan. We have to go back to kahyangan,” said the eldest fairy. “You’ll have to find it by yourself. We’ll wait for you in kahyangan,” she said in empathy. The other fairies then flew to the sky leaving Nawang Wulan behind. Nawang Wulan saw them leaving in tears. She was so sad.
“Excuse me …,” said Jaka Tarub, startling Nawang Wulan. “Are you okay?” he asked. Nawang Wulan moved backward, “Who are you?” she asked. “My name is Jaka Tarub. I was passing by and I heard you crying, so I came to see what happen,” Jaka Tarub lied. Nawang Wulan then told him about her problem. “I can’t fly without my scarf,” she said. Jaka Tarub then asked Nawang Wulan to come home with him. At first, Nawang Wulan refused the offer. But since she didn’t have anywhere else to go, Nawang Wulan then decided to follow Jaka Tarub.
Nawang Wulan stayed with Jaka Tarub in the village. A month passed, and they decided to get married. Nawang Wulan was willing to marry a human because she fell in love with Jaka Tarub. After a year, they had a beautiful daughter. They named her Kumalasari. They lived happily.
Jaka Tarub was also happy to live with Nawang Wulan and Kumalasari. Especially because he always got a lot of harvest since he married Nawang Wulan. He couldn’t even keep all of his harvest in the barn because it was always full. “It’s so weird. Nawang Wulan cooked everyday, but why is my barn always full,” Jaka Tarub mumbled to himself. He was so curious. One day, Jaka Tarub stayed at home. “I want to stay home today. I’d like to play with Kumalasari,” he said to his wife. “Well, I’ll go to the river to wash the clothes. Please keep an eye on Kumalasari,” asked Nawang Wulan. “I’m cooking rice now. Please do not open the pan cover before it’s done,” she said just before she left. “Could this be the secret?” Jaka Tarub thought. After Nawang Wulan left, he curiously opened the pan cover. He found only one single paddy. “How come?” he wondered.
Before lunch, Nawang Wulan came home. She headed to the kitchen to see the rice she had cooked. She found that the rice turned into only a few grains. “Did you open the pan cover?” she asked her husband. “I… I’m sorry. I was curious,” Jaka Tarub said as he realized his fault.
Ever since, Nawang Wulan had lost her power. She couldn’t cook rice with only a single paddy. Their paddy supply was slowly lessened. Their barn was almost empty. One day, Nawang Wulan went to the barn to get some paddy. When she took one of them, she found a scarf. “What’s this? This is my scarf,” said Nawang Wulan startled.
That night, Nawang Wulan asked her husband about the scarf. Jaka Tarub’s eyes widened, “You found it?” he asked. Jaka Tarub looked down and asked for her forgiveness. “Because I’ve found my scarf, it’s time for me to go back to where I belong,” Nawang Wulan said. Jaka Tarub tried to stop her, but Nawang Wulan had made up her mind. “Please take good care of Kumalasari,” she said. “If she wanted to see me, take seven grains of candlenut and put it into a basket. Shake it as you play the bamboo flute. I’ll come to see her,” she explained.
Jaka Tarub promised to take good care of their daughter. He once again asked for forgiveness for all of his mistakes. “I’ve forgiven you, so you don’t have to feel guilty. I must go now. Take care,” said Nawang Wulan as she flew to the bright full moon.***



Cerita rakyat from Central Java
Aji Saka
A long time ago there was a kingdom called Medang Kamulan. The kingdom of Medang Kamulan was ruled by Prabu Dewata Cengkar. The people in the kingdom were very scared by the king. It was because the king liked to eat human flesh. Once a week, he commanded his messenger, Patih Jugul Muda, to find him a human to eat.
Far away from the kingdom of Medang Kamulan, there was a village called Medang Kawit. A young man named Aji Saka lived there. Aji Saka was a brave young man. He loved to help people who needed help. One day, Aji Saka saw an old man lying unconscious on the ground. The old man was wounded. Some thieves just hit him and stole his money. Aji Saka then carried the old man to his hut. Soon after, the old man started to regain consciousness. “Where…am I?” he asked. “You’re in my house. You’re safe now,” said Aji Saka. It turned out that the old man was from the kingdom of Medang Kamulan. “Everybody was leaving Medang Kamulan,” the old man told Aji Saka. He also told him about Prabu Dewata Cengkar’s bad habit. “We were terrified, that’s why we left,” The old man said.
After he heard the explanation from the old man, Aji Saka decided to go meet Prabu Dewata Cengkar and make him stop the menace. With his magical white turban on his head, Aji Saka went to the kingdom. The turban was a gift from his Guru that could be used to fight evil. On his journey to Medang Kamulan, Aji Saka passed through a very dark forest where he met an evil genie. The genie blocked his path. “If you want to get through this forest, you must be my slave for ten years,” the genie demanded. Aji Saka refused to be the genie’s slave. The two of them then fight for seven days and seven nights, until at last Aji Saka came out as winner. The genie finally allowed Aji Saka to pass through the forest.
When Aji Saka arrived in the kingdom of Medang Kamulan, the king was angry to Patih Jugul Muda. He was not able to find the king some humans. “If you can’t find me any humans, I’ll eat you instead,” Prabu Dewata Cengkar said to Patih Jugul Muda. After Patih Jugul Muda left, Aji Saka revealed himself. Prabu Dewata Cengkar’s eyes suddenly widened upon seeing Aji Saka. He could already imagine how delicious his meat would taste. “Who are you?” asked Prabu Dewata Cengkar. “I am Aji Saka from the village of Medang Kawit,” Aji Saka answered. “Ha...ha...ha.... I’m glad you came here. You would be my meal. I'm starving,” said the king.
“I would gladly let you eat me, but I want something in return.” Aji Saka said. “What is it that you want?” asked Prabu Dewata Cengkar. “I want a land as large as my turban,” said Aji Saka. He then took off his turban and threw it on the ground. Prabu Dewata Cengkar agreed. He himself would measure the land with Aji Saka’s turban. Suddenly the turban grew bigger and bigger. It just kept on stretching until it finally covered the whole kingdom. Prabu Dewata Cengkar was angry. He then attacked Aji Saka. But, then the turban wrapped itself around him and began to strangle him. The turban then threw the king’s body to the South Sea. The waves carried Prabu dewata Cengkar away until he finally drowned and died.
Aji Saka then asked the people of Medang Kamulan to come back to the kingdom. They all thanked the brave Aji Saka. They also agreed to make Aji Saka to be their king. Aji Saka then ruled the kingdom wisely. Under the leadership of Aji Saka, Medang Kamulan become a peaceful and prosperous kingdom.***

Cerita rakyat from Central Java
Mouse Deer and Tiger
One upon a time, there was a mouse deer living in a forest. Although he was small, he wasn’t afraid of the other bigger animals who wanted to eat him. He was so smart; he always managed to ditch them. One day, a tiger was wandering around for food. He hadn't been eating for days. He was really hungry. While he was walking in the forest, he saw Mouse Deer. The tiger wanted to eat him.
Tiger slowly ducked, crawled, approaching Mouse Deer, then..."Gotcha!" said Tiger. He caught Mouse Deer. “Hello, Mouse Deer! I’m really hungry right now. You’ll be my lunch!” said Tiger. Mouse Deer didn’t want to be his lunch. He tried to be calm. He looked around and saw some buffalo’s dung. He had an idea. “I’m sorry, Tiger. I can’t be your lunch now. The King has ordered me to guard his cake,” said Mouse Deer calmly. “His cake?” said Tiger curiously. “Yes, there it is. It’s very delicious. The King doesn’t want anyone else to eat it, so he ordered me to guard it,” Mouse Deer pointed the buffalo’s dung. “Can I taste it?” Tiger asked. “Of course you can’t. The King would be very angry,” said Mouse Deer refused. “Just one little bite, Mouse Deer! The King will never know,” said Tiger. “Well, okay, Tiger. But first let me run far away, so the King won’t blame me,” said Mouse Deer. “All right, Mouse deer. You can go now.” Mouse Deer ran quickly out of sight. Tiger then took a big mouthful of the ‘cake’. “Phoooey!” He spit it out. “Yuck, that’s not cake. That’s buffalo’s dung.”
Tiger ran through the forest. He caught up with Mouse Deer. “Mouse Deer, you tricked me. But now you will be my lunch.” Mouse Deer looked around and saw a wasp nest in a tree. “I’m sorry, Tiger. I can’t be your lunch now. The King has ordered me to guard his drum,” said Mouse Deer calmly. “His drum?” said Tiger curiously. “Yes, there it is. It has the best sound in the world. The King doesn’t want anyone else to hit it,” Mouse Deer pointed the wasp nest. “Can I hit the King’s drum?” Tiger asked. “Of course you can’t. The King would be very angry,” said Mouse Deer refused. “Just one little hit, Mouse Deer! The King will never know,” said Tiger. ”Well, all right, Tiger. But first let me run far away, so the King won’t blame me,” said Mouse Deer. “All right, Mouse Deer. You can go now.” Mouse Deer ran quickly out of sight. Tiger then reached up and hit the wasp nest. Bzzzzzzz…! “Ouch…ouch! That’s not a drum. That a wasp nests!”
Tiger ran away. But the wasps keep following him. He came to the river. He jumped in and stayed underwater as long as he could. At last the wasps went away. Then he jumped out. He ran through the forest till he found Mouse Deer. “Mouse Deer, you tricked me again. But now you will be my lunch.” Mouse Deer looked around and saw a cobra. The snake was coiled asleep on the ground. “I’m sorry, Tiger. I can’t be your lunch now. The King has ordered me to guard his belt,” said Mouse Deer calmly. “His belt?” said Tiger curiously. “Yes. There it is. It’s the best belt in the world. The King doesn’t want anyone else to wear it,” Mouse Deer pointed the cobra. “Can I wear it?” Tiger asked. “Of course you can’t. The King would be very angry,” said Mouse Deer refused. “Just for one moment, Mouse Deer! The King will never know,” said Tiger. ”Well, all right, Tiger. But first let me run far away, so the King won’t blame me,” said Mouse Deer. “All right, Mouse Deer. You can go now.” Mouse Deer ran quickly out of sight. Tiger then took the snake and started to warp it around himself. The cobra woke up. It squeezed Tiger and bit him. SSssssstt! “Oouch! Ow! Ooow! That’s not a belt! That’s a cobra! Help! Mouse Deer! Help!” But Mouse Deer was already far away. He laughed aloud. Mouse Deer was safe from Tiger now.***
Cerita rakyat from West Kalimantan
The Golden Watermelon
Long time ago, at the north area of West Kalimantan, lived a wealthy merchant. He had two sons. The older one is named Muzakir and the younger one is named Dermawan. The two brothers were so different in their attitudes. Muzakir had a very mean and greedy character. On the contradictory, Dermawan was a caring and kind person. He was not greedy and always tried to help those in needs.
Before he passed away, the merchant divided all of his money equally to both of his sons. He did it so that both of his sons will not envious at each other. Muzakir then bought a big cash-box. He put his entire share inside the cash-box and locked it. When a poor came to Muzakir’s house, he laughs at them instead of giving them something. If the poor don’t want to leave, Muzakir would summon his servants to chase them away.
Many of the poor in that area had heard about Muzakir’s rude attitude, therefore they preferred to come to Dermawan. When Dermawan saw those peoples coming, he sincerely welcome them to his house and shared money with those who needed it. It was almost every day a poor came for his help that f inally he ran out of money. Dermawan then moved to a smaller house. He also worked as a foreman. His salary was not much, only enough to buy his own daily meals. But Dermawan was happy with his simple life.
His elder brother laughed when he heard the news about Dermawan. He always thought that Dermawan was a fool to share his money with other people. He himself has just bought a large new house. “There is no one who as stupid as my younger brother,” he said.
One day, when Dermawan was sitting and relaxing in his house yard, a sparrow suddenly fell off in front of him. The sparrow twittered in pain. “Poor bird, did you broke your wing?” He took the bird and examines its wings. He’s right. One of the sparrow’s wings is broken. “Let me take care of you,” he said. Dermawan bandaged the sparrow’s wing and then he took some rice to feed the poor bird. After some time, the bird gradually tamed and was no longer afraid to Dermawan. Few days later, its wings were completely healed. After a while, it flew to the sky. The following day, the sparrow came to visit Dermawan. It held a seed with its beak, and then it put the seed in front of Dermawan. It was an ordinary seed, but Dermawan accepted it with a big smile on his face. He then planted the seed in the back yard of his house.
Three days later, the seed started to grow. It was a watermelon tree. Dermawan took good care of the tree. He thought the tree would bear many fruits since it was so blossomy. But, from all the flowers, only one turned to fruit. Day by day, the fruit grows bigger, bigger than any watermelon Dermawan ever see. Harvesting time finally came and he decided to take the watermelon. “Oh my God, it is so heavy”, he uttered while trying hardly to carry it into the house to put on the table. He took a knife and started to cut the watermelon. Dermawan was shocked. Inside the watermelon is some kind of yellow sand. “What could this be?” Dermawan wondered. Then he realized that the strange yellow sand was actually a pile of pure golden sand. “Holy God, it’s gold. I’m rich,” he danced happily. He heard bird twittered and he looked outside. He saw the sparrow on a tree. “Thank you”, he shouted. “Thank you”, he shouted again, and then the sparrow flew away.
Dermawan then bought a big house with a very big garden the next day. All of the poor came to his house and were welcomed for meals. This time, Dermawan would not run out of money. He had so much money, and his fields produced plants with good fruits as well.
The news about Dermawan’s fortune was heard by Muzakir and made him envy. He went to Dermawan house, and Dermawan honestly told his brother about the sparrow. Muzakir immediately commanded his servants to find a bird with broken wings as he heard the story from his brother. A week passed, but Muzakir’s servants still couldn’t find such bird. He was so angry and even couldn‘t sleep during the nights. The next day, he asked one of his servants to catch a bird using chopsticks. Of course, the chopsticks hurt the bird and broke its wings. Muzakir then pretended to pity the bird and took care of it. Days passed and the bird was completely healed and let to fly. The following day, the bird came back to Muzakir and brought a seed for him. He was very happy. ”I will be very rich soon, even richer than Dermawan,” he said to himself.
Muzakir planted the seed at the back yard of his house and it grew to a fine watermelon tree after several days. It also bore only one fruit, which was much bigger than that once owned by Dermawan. As the harvesting time approached, Muzakir asked his servants to take the fruit into his house. He couldn‘t wait to find a pile of golden sand inside. He cut the watermelon himself and was very shocked when black mud mixed with dirt flushed out to his face. It smelled very bad. Muzakir‘s clothes and also the room were terribly dirty because of it. He ran to the street because he couldn‘t stand the rotten smell from the watermelon. All the people on the street laughed at him for what they saw.***
 Cerita rakyat from West Kalimantan
The Origin of Landak River
Long time ago, lived a farmer and his wife in a village by the side of a forest. They lived simply and they like to help other people, especially one who in afflictions. One night, the farmer and his wife were resting in their house. The farmer was sitting beside his sleeping wife. Suddenly, a white centipede came out from the wife’s head. The farmer was amazed. He then followed the centipede until they reach a small pond not far from their house. Then the centipede suddenly disappeared. The farmer went home and found his wife still soundly asleep.
In the morning, the wife told his husband about the dream she had last night. “I was walking through a vast field, and I came to a lake. I saw a giant hedgehog in the lake. It was glaring at me, so I ran away.” After he heard his wife’s dream, the farmer went back to the small pond. In the pond, he saw something very shiny. He came to the shiny object and took it. It was a golden hedgehog statue. It was very beautiful. Its eyes were made of diamond. The farmer then brought the statue home.
At night, the farmer had a dream. A giant hedgehog came to him, “Please let me stay in your home. As return, I will give you everything you want. Just caress the statue’s head and say the prayer. There are two kinds of prayers, one is to start your wish and the second is to stop your wish. Now memorize the prayers.”
In the next day, the farmer told his wife about his dream. They really wanted to prove it. The farmer slowly caressed the statue's head. He said the prayer and asked for rice. Suddenly, rice came out of the mouth of the statue. The rice kept on coming out from the statue's mouth. The farmer immediately said the prayer to stop it. The rice then stopped coming out from the statue.
The farmer and his wife then asked for other things, jewelry and other stuff they needed. They became very rich. But they still like to help other people. A lot of poor came to them for help. Unfortunately, a thief found out about the secret of the golden hedgehog statue. Pretending to be a poor asking for help, he stole the statue from the farmer’s house.
The thief blurred to the district area of Ngabang. There was a drought in the area. The thief wanted sympathy from the people, so he said to them that he would provide them with water. The thief then caressed the hedgehog statue and said the prayer. Water came out of the statue’s mouth. All the people were so happy. But the water kept on coming out. The thief didn’t know the prayer to stop the wish. People who saw the incident were really scared. They ran away to avoid the water as it was started to flood the area. The thief also wanted to run away, but he cannot move his legs. In his vision, there was a giant hedgehog holding both his legs. Water kept coming from the statue and slowly it became a river. The thief was drowned in the river. People then named the river as Hedgehog River or Sungai Landak.***


Cerita rakyat from South Kalimantan
Ning Rangda
A long time ago in the southern area of Borneo Island, lived a beautiful girl named Rangda. She had excellent weaving and sewing skills. Her beauty was known in the whole area. Many young men fell in love with her.
One day, the prince who had heard about Rangda’s beauty, came to her house to order a dress from her. The prince was amazed by Rangda’s beauty and her humbleness. He fell in love with her. After he got his dress, the prince immediately went back to the palace. He wanted to tell his father that he already found his future wife. However, right after the prince arrived at the palace, he suffered a terrible illness. He was unconscious and got high fever. Every night in his sleep, he always whispered a name, "Rangda... Rangda... Rangda."
The king was really worried. He asked his advisors about the Rangda's name. One of the king’s advisors, Wakil Mangkubumi was familiar with the name. “Rangda is a beautiful young girl who lives at the southern area. She had excellent weaving and sewing skill. All of the prince’s clothes were made by her,” explained Wakil Mangkubumi.
The king knew that his son had fallen in love with the girl. The next day, he ordered his soldiers to take him and the prince to Rangda's house. Wakil Mangkubumi went first to Rangda’s house. The king had ordered him to tell Rangda and her parents about the wedding proposal. Rangda was very happy because she also fell in love with the prince.
When the prince heard that he would meet with Rangda, he was very happy. His health improved significantly. Then the prince, the king, and the soldiers went to Rangda's house. But the trip was very tiring and made the prince suffered his illness again. The illness was worse than the previous one. It was so bad that finally the prince died on the journey.
The king was so sad. He thought it was useless to continue the trip. Then he went back to the palace. Meanwhile, Rangda did not know that the prince had died. She was sewing a wedding dress for the wedding. She wanted to give the prince the best wedding dress. Everyday, she waited and waited for the prince, but he never came. She kept on sewing the wedding dress until she was old. People then called her Ning Rangda. She was called Ning because she was old and had a hunchbacked body.***
erita rakyat from South Kalimantan
Legend of Gunung Batu Bangkai
Many years ago, in Loksado, lived a young man with his mother. He was called Andung Kuswara. He was a smart young man. He had medical skill that he learned from his late father. Andung Kuswara worked hard everyday to fulfill their daily needs. One day, Andung Kuswara went to the forest alone, searching for fruits and vegetables. On his way home, he found an old man squeezed badly between two big trees. Andung Kuswara immediately helped him. He then healed his wound perfectly. “Dear young man, I thank you for your help,” the old man said and took something hanging on his neck. “As my gratitude, I give you this necklace. Hopefully it would bring good fortune for you,” said the old man. Andung Kuswara took the gift and went home.
Both Andung Kuswara and his mother passed their times happily. But Andung Kuswara wanted a better life for him and his mother. “Maybe it is better to leave my home to another country and practice my medical skill,” he thought. However, he had not enough courage to tell his intention to his mother. He knew his mother would be alone if he left. After a month passed, finally Andung Kuswara told his mother about his intention. “Mother, I want to make our life better. I want to go to other country and find a better job,” he said to his mother. “Andung… my son. If it is your final decision, I won’t stop you. All I can do is pray for you to find what you’re searching for,” his mother said wisely. “Thank you, Mother,” Andung Kuswara smiled happily.
The next morning, Andung Kuswara left his homeland to pursue his dream. He went overseas. He walked for weeks until he reached the kingdom of Basiang. On his way, he met a farmer whose body was full of ulcers and scabies. Andung Kuswara tried to help him. He cured the farmer with his medical skill.
The farmer was so happy. He offered Andung Kuswara to stay at his home. He also told Andung Kuswara that almost all inhabitants of the country were suffering from the same diseases. The news about Andung Kuswara’s medical skill quickly spread throughout the whole country. All sick people come to him to be cured from their sickness.
The king of Basiang also heard the news about Andung Kuswara’s excellent medical skill. The king then ordered his guard to brought Andung Kuswara to cure the princess who was also been sick. “My daughter has been on her bed for two weeks. She can not do anything. Many healers had attempted to recover her, but they failed. Will you cure her?” asked the king to Andung Kuswara. “My Majesty, I am just a poor wanderer and I have minimal medical skill. So, please forgive me if I also fail in recovering the princess”, Andung Kuswara replied.
Andung Kuswara was then allowed to enter the princess‘s room. The princess was very pale and weak. However, her beauty clearly seemed through her wonderful face. Andung Kuswara was amazed looking at her, “Ah, the princess is so beautiful,” he said to himself. He then tried to cure the princess with all his skill, but the princess did not move at all. Andung Kuswara then thought of another way. He took the necklace hanging on his neck. The necklace was soaked in the cup of water for a moment. After reading some prayers upon the water, Andung Kuswara spattered it on the princess‘s face for several times. Suddenly, the princess could move her body. Her eyes and lips opened, and her face turned bright. The princess was eventually able to sit on her bed.
The king was very grateful for Andung Kuswara‘s help to his only daughter. To express his gratefulness, he allowed Andung Kuswara to marry his daughter. The princess was happy to welcome Andung as her husband. The same was felt by Andung who fell in love with the princess.
A year passed, and the princess was pregnant. She told her husband that she desired to eat kasturi fruit that only grew in Kalimantan Island. Andung Kuswara‘s accompanied by several kingdom troops went to search the fruit. After arriving at the Kalimantan Island, Andung Kuswara headed to Loksado to find the kasturi tree which, according to local people, was bearing fruit. Andung Kuswara stood surprisingly after knowing that the tree grew exactly in front of his mother‘s small hut. Andung Kuswara immediately commanded the troops to return to the kingdom without taking the fruit to avoid meeting his own mother.
But suddenly Andung Kuswara’s mother went out from the hut. She saw her son among the troops in front of her home. “Andung…Andung…my son,” she tried to call her son. Andung Kuswara and the troops continuously walked to keep away from the old woman. However, she ran after them and kept calling for his son. Feeling ashamed in front of the troops, Andung Kuswara said angrily to his own mother, “Stop calling me as your son, old woman. I am a nobility of the Basiang Kingdom. I never know an old woman like you.” After that, Andung kuswara continued walking.
Andung Kuswara’s mother was shocked to hear those words from her beloved son. She cried and prayed with trembling lips, “Oh my God, show your power and justice.” Her tears had not been drying when the sky suddenly turned dark and thunder stroke repeatedly. After that, a sudden storm smashed and heavy rain fell dementedly. Suddenly Andung Kuswara‘s body slowly turned into stone.
Since the time, the locals called the mountain as Gunung Batu Bangkai (mountain of decease stone), because the stone that lays on it resembles human body. The mountain located in the sub district of Loksado, South Kalimantan .***


Cerita rakyat from North Sumatra
Lau Kawar
Once upon a time, there was a very fertile land at the Karo Regency. It was known as the Kawar Village. Its people were mostly farmers, and the land did produce wonderful harvest. It is said that one day the harvest was doubled compared to the previous year. The barns were extremely full with rice. For this reason, the people agreed to have a celebration party. On one beautiful day, all the villagers gathered in a field. They wore beautiful dresses and made delicious food. Everybody was having good times. They were singing, laughing, and of course, eating delicious food.
All of the villagers attended the party except an old woman who was paralyzed. Her son, her daughter-in-law, and her grandson all went to the party. The old woman lay on her bed alone. “I really want to be at the party but I cannot even stand on my feet,” sobbed the old woman. She could only see the merry party from distance.
The lunch time came and all of the people at the party gathered around the table for the foods that had been prepared. All of them enjoyed the foods happily. Contradictory to what was going on at the party, the old woman was starving in the house. She didn`t eat even a bite since morning. “My goodness, I am so hungry. Why any of my family didn`t come to bring me something to eat?” sighed her with her body shivering for hunger. She forced herself up from the bed and searched for something to eat in the kitchen, but there’s nothing. Her daughter in law did not to cook that day, realizing that foods would be prepared in the feast. The poor old woman came back to her bed. She was so disappointed and sad that her tears dropped. She cried for her poor life.
At the party, the son asked her wife, "Why don't you take some food from the party and give it for my mom. Ask our son to deliver it. “Alright”, said the woman while hurriedly wrapping the foods for the mother. After that, she asked her son to take the foods home for her as her husband told her previously, “My son, please take these foods for your grandmother.”
The old woman was very happy for the foods. Finally, she got something to eat. But her happiness turned into sadness when she saw find only leftovers. It just had little rice and there were only some bones of beef and lamb which were almost without any meat to eat. “What is this!? Do they think I’m an animal? Why did they give me leftovers and bones!” moaned her furiously.
The mother stored complete grilled meat into the package in fact. However, the grandson ate the foods on his way to his grandmother that only bones were left. The old woman didn`t know anything about this that she thought her son and daughter in law did it on purpose. She felt so disappointed and humiliated that she hardly held her tears to fall down. She then prayed to God to curse both her son and daughter in law. “My God, they were sinful to me. I beg You to punish them!” said the woman in her prayer.
Suddenly, there was a very strong earthquake not even a minute when the woman completed her prayer. The sky was turned dark and cloudy, and there was a great thunder followed by heavy rain. All the villagers were so scared. They wanted to save themselves. They tried to find shelters. The village was drowned in a short time and there was not even a single person survived. The drowned village turned into a big crater and flooded by water. The people in the surroundings later on call it Lau Kawar.***
Cerita rakyat from North Sumatra
The Origin of Pond Sampuraga
In the area Sumatra, lived a widow with her son named Sampuraga. They lived in a small hut in the forest. Everyday they worked hard as employees in a farm owned by a rich man. One day, Sampuraga and his boss took a rest, leaning on a tree after working all day. While enjoying their lunch, the boss asked, “Sampuraga, you’re still young. Why don’t you move to a prosperous land and find a better job?” Sampuraga was an honest and diligent young man. That why his boss cared for him and wanted a better life for him. ”Actually I`ve been dreaming to move to search for a better life. I want to make my mother happier. But where to?” asked Sampuraga. “You should go to Mandailing. One of my friend live there. Most of the inhabitants have farms and fields. They also seek for living by panning for gold in the river since it has high level of gold content,” explained the boss. The conversation made Sampuraga decided to follow the boss’s advised.
Back in his hut, Sampuraga told his mother about his decision. “Mother, I want to move to look for a better life. In this place, I’ll always be employee and work for other people. I want to go someplace else and try out my luck,” Sampuraga said to his mother. “Where will you go, son?” his mother asked. “I was thinking about Mandailing. The boss told me that the people in Mandailing live in prosperity because of its fertile soil,” Sampuraga said. His mother knew that Sampuraga had made up his mind and nothing can change his decision. “Though I`m afraid of being separated with you, as I get older, but I have no reason to forbid you. I`m sorry I never make you happy,” his mother said. “Thank you, Mother! I promise I`ll be back soon if I were success. Pray for me Mom,” Sampuraga asking for his Mother’s blessing.
Sampuraga depart on his journey to Mandailing the following day. He left his mother alone. Days passed, he walked throughout a forest passing by villages. One day, he reached a city in Pidoli Kingdom, in Mandailing. In that place, he tried to apply for job. A rich merchant accepted his application. The merchant took a great trust in him as he was diligent and honest young man. After a year, the boss gave him some financial capitals so that he could run his own business. His business grew up rapidly in a short time. Some of his profits were kept to increase his capital in order to make his business bigger. Finally, he was known a rich young business man.
The merchant was so proud with Sampuraga. One day, he asked Sampuraga if he is interested to marry his daughter. “Sampuraga, you are honest and diligent man. Do you want to marry my daughter?” asked the merchant. “Of course, Sir,“ Sampuraga answered. The merchant’s daughter was known as the most beautiful girl in the Pidoli Kingdom.
They got married in a luxurious wedding party. All preparations had been started months before the wedding day. Ten buffalos and goats were provided in the party. Everybody knew about the big wedding including Sampuraga’s mother. She heard the news from a passing merchant from Mandailing. “Is it true? Maybe it’s just the same name,” she was at doubt. How could it possible for her son to marry a beautiful girl from a wealthy family, whereas he’s just a son of poor widow. But, Sampuraga’s mother still wanted to make sure, so she went to Mandailing to watch the wedding. When she arrived in Pidoli Kingdom, the wedding party already started. It was so crowded and noisy. She tried to get closer in the crowd. She was shocked when she saw the man who was sitting next to a beautiful girl. It was her son, Sampuraga. “Raga…! Sampuraga, my son,” she shouted, trying to get Sampuraga’s attention.
Sampuraga was shocked to hear that familiar voice. “Oh…It`s not possible,” he thought while looking for the source of the voice among the crowded. But then he saw an old woman ran to him. “Sampuraga, my son! I’m your mother!” said the old woman while she tried to embrace Sampuraga. But Sampuraga was so embarrassed to see his own mother. His face turned red. “Hey, old woman! Don`t pretend to be my mother! I have no mother like you! Go away from here now! Don’t disturb my party!” he shouted with angry tone. His mother was startled to see Sampuraga’s reaction. “Raga… Sampuraga. I’m your mother. How could you forget your own mother?” she started to cry.
“No!! You`re not my Mother! She’s already dead! Guard, take this old woman out of here!” Sampuraga ordered his guard. His heart had totally hardened until he denied and chased away his own mother. All of the guests only kept on silence, no one dared to mediate them. The old woman then was dragged by two guards out of the party. While still crying, she prayed, “Dear God…If he were truly my son, Sampuraga, please give him a punishment for disavowing me.”
Suddenly, the sky turned dark, covered by thick cloud. The rain fell down followed by thunderstorm. All of the guests tried to ran away, but they couldn’t escape the storm. Just in a short time, no one was safe, including Sampuraga and his wife.
On the next days, that place turned into a hot pond surrounded by limestone whose shape were the same as buffalos. There were also two heaps of sand and colorful mud that looked like the food offered on Sampuraga`s wedding party. People later call it “Kolam Sampuraga” or Pond Sampuraga.***
 Cerita rakyat from North Sumatra
Nai Manggale
Once upon a time in Tapanuli, lived a famous sculptor named Datu Panggana. When he got an order, he went to the forest to look for the most suitable wood and carved it according to the order. One day, he got an inspiration to carve a wood he found. He worked all day in his workshop to carve the wood into a statue of a beautiful woman. Then, he put the statue in front of his house.
Later, a young merchant passed by and saw the statue. His name was Bao Partigatiga. He was very impressed by the beauty of the statue. He then put beautiful clothes and jewelries on the statue. “It’s so beautiful,” he said to himself proudly. The statue looked like a real human. Then he left Datu Panggana’s house.
After that, a priest named Datu Partoar and his wife passed by. They were also impressed by the beauty of the statue. "I want to pray to God to make her live like a real human. I want to make her as our daughter," said Datu Partoar to his wife. The couple didn’t have any children yet. The statue changed into a very beautiful girl. Datu Partoar and his wife then took the girl home. They named her Nai Manggale.
The news about Nai Manggale’s beauty spread throughout the village. All the villagers came to Datu Partoar’s house to see Nai Manggale. Among them were Datu Panggana and Bao Partigatiga. Nai Manggale honestly told the villagers that she was actually a statue which became a living woman by the grace of God.
Datu Panggana went after Datu Partoar to claim his own creation and Bao Partigatiga also claimed his right for the living statue. “It was me who carved her from a wood. So, she is mine,” said Datu Panggana. “She is wearing my clothes and jewelries. So, she should go with me,” said Bao Partigatiga. "Remember, I am the one who made her live like a human. So, she stays here," Datu Partoar also join in the argument.
Those three men were arguing. They claimed to have the rights of Nai Manggale. To calm them, an elderly of the village gave a solution. His name was Aji Bahir. "You all can have her and have a relationship with her. Datu Panggana, you’re her uncle. Bao Partigatiga, you’re her brother. And Datu Partoar, you’re her father." The three men accepted Aji Bahir's advice. And they were happy because now they were related.***
Cerita rakyat from West Sumatra
Malin Kundang
Once upon a time, on the north coast of Sumatra lived a poor woman and his son. The boy was called Malin Kundang. They didn’t earn much as fishing was their only source of income. Malin Kundang grew up as a skillful young boy. He always helps his mother to earn some money. However, as they were only fisherman’s helper, they still lived in poverty. “Mother, what if I sail overseas?” asked Malin Kundang one day to his mother. Her mother didn’t agree but Malin Kundang had made up his mind. “Mother, if I stay here, I’ll always be a poor man. I want to be a successful person,” urged Malin kundang. His mother wiped her tears, “If you really want to go, I can’t stop you. I could only pray to God for you to gain success in life,” said his mother wisely. “But, promise me, you’ll come home.”
In the next morning, Malin Kundang was ready to go. Three days ago, he met one of the successful ship’s crew. Malin was offered to join him. “Take a good care of yourself, son,” said Malin Kundang’s mother as she gave him some food supplies. “Yes, Mother,” Malin Kundang said. “You too have to take a good care of yourself. I’ll keep in touch with you,” he continued before kissing his mother’s hand. Before Malin stepped onto the ship, Malin’s mother hugged him tight as if she didn’t want to let him go.
It had been three months since Malin Kundang left his mother. As his mother had predicted before, he hadn’t contacted her yet. Every morning, she stood on the pier. She wished to see the ship that brought Malin kundang home. Every day and night, she prayed to the God for her son’s safety. There was so much prayer that had been said due to her deep love for Malin Kundang. Even though it’s been a year she had not heard any news from Malin Kundang, she kept waiting and praying for him.
After several years waiting without any news, Malin Kundang’s mother was suddenly surprised by the arrival of a big ship in the pier where she usually stood to wait for her son. When the ship finally pulled over, Malin Kundang’s mother saw a man who looked wealthy stepping down a ladder along with a beautiful woman. She could not be wrong. Her blurry eyes still easily recognized him. The man was Malin Kundang, her son.
Malin Kundang’s mother quickly went to see her beloved son. “Malin, you’re back, son!” said Malin Kundang’s mother and without hesitation, she came running to hug Malin Kundang, “I miss you so much.” But, Malin Kundang didn’t show any respond. He was ashamed to admit his own mother in front of his beautiful wife. “You’re not my Mother. I don’t know you. My mother would never wear such ragged and ugly clothes,” said Malin Kundang as he release his mother embrace.
Malin Kundang’s mother take a step back, “Malin…You don’t recognize me? I’m your mother!” she said sadly. Malin Kundang’s face was as cold as ice. “Guard, take this old women out of here,” Malin Kundang ordered his bodyguard. “Give her some money so she won’t disturb me again!” Malin Kundang’s mother cried as she was dragged by the bodyguard, ”Malin... my son. Why do you treat your own mother like this?”
Malin Kundang ignored his mother and ordered the ship crews to set sail. Malin Kundang’s mother sat alone in the pier. Her heart was so hurt, she cried and cried. “Dear God, if he isn’t my son, please let him have a save journey. But if he is, I cursed him to become a stone,” she prayed to the God.
In the quiet sea, suddenly the wind blew so hard and a thunderstorm came. Malin Kundang’s huge ship was wrecked. He was thrown by the wave out of his ship, and fell on a small island. Suddenly, his whole body turned into stone. He was punished for not admitting his own mother.***
Cerita rakyat from West Sumatra
Pak Lebai Malang
Pak Lebai was an old man living in a village by the river. Everyday, he used his sampan for travelling at the river. Pak Lebai had a bad habit. He always changed his mind before he did something. He was an inconsistent man. One day, Pak Lebai was invited to a party by his neighbor. Pak lebai was happy. He loved party because he could eat delicious food. He also could get a buffalo's head from the party. Still on the same day, he got another invitation. Those two party invitations made him confused. The two parties were held at the same time, but at different places. The two neighbors who invited him lived in different sides of the river. One neighbor lived on the east side and the other one lived in the west side. "If I go to the west side, I will only get one buffalo’s head. If I go to the east side, I can have two heads of buffalo. But the host at the west side is friendlier,” he said to himself. He was confused.
On the following day, Pak Lebai paddled his sampan to the party at the west side of the river. But then he changed his mind and went to the east side. On the way there, he met with some friends. "The party is awful. There are not many buffalo's heads," said one of them. So, Pak Lebai turned back his sampan again and went to the west side. Unfortunately, the party was already over when he arrived there. Pak Lebai immediately paddled his sampan to the east side again. But he also missed the party.
Pak Lebai was upset and blaming himself for being so inconsistent. He was so hungry and tired because he was padding back and forth in the river. He then fell asleep in his sampan. He did not realize that his sampan was drifting away at the river. When he woke up, he was already in the different village. That’s why all his neighbors started to call him Pak Lebai Malang (poor mister Lebai).***

Cerita rakyat from Central Sulawesi
Legend of Batu Bagga
Long time ago in Sulawesi Island, lived a man named Intobu. He lived alone with his only son, named Impalak. They were poor. Everyday they work as fishermen. They went to the sea every night to catch fish, even in bad weather. Intobu always advised his son, “Being fishermen is our only income. Do not take the bad weather as our enemy.” Impalak nodded. “Yes, Father,” he replied.
Intobu and Impalak worked as fishermen for years. But, Impalak started to feel bored with the job. He wanted to try something new. He wanted to make a better living for his father and himself. One day, Impalak tried to talk to his father about his desire. “Father…, please forgives me,” Impalak felt hesitated. “What is it, my son?” Intobu was curious seeing his son’s strange attitude. “Father, actually I want to quit working as fisherman. I want to go abroad and try working something else,” explained Impalak.
Intobu was sad hearing his son’s decision, but he also wanted Impalak to be a successful person. “If that is your decision, I couldn’t do anything else but to allow you. I can only pray for your safety and success” said Intobu. “But I want you to always remember your homeland. Always remember your father,” he continued. “Yes, Father. I will remember. Thank you,” said Impalak happily.
In the next day, Impalak went to the harbor. He saw a bagga (sailboat) and went to see the owner. “Excuse me, Sir. I’m wondering if I can sail with you?” asked Impalak. The bagga’s owner was silent for a moment. “It’s not a problem for me. But why do you want to sail with me, and have you asked permission from your parents?” asked the bagga’s owner then. “I worked here as fishermen with my father, but I want to try my luck abroad. My father already agreed with my plan,” said Impalak. “All right, I will set sail tomorrow. Come met me here in the morning. And by the way, what’s your name?” asked the bagga’s owner. “Thank you, Sir. My name is Impalak, Sir,” Impalak answered happily.
Back in his house, Impalak told his father about the bagga boat. “When do you depart?” asked Intobu. “Tomorrow, Father,” answered Impalak. The next morning, impalak went to the harbor together with his father. The bagga was ready to set sail. “Hurry, Impalak!” shout the bagga’s owner. Impalak kissed his father’s hand, “I’m going, Father. Take care,” said Impalak. “Go, Son. My blessing is with you,” said Intobu. There were tears in his eyes as he saw the bagga leaving the harbor.
A few years passed. Every time Intobu saw a bagga boat, he always hoped that his son is coming home. But there’s no news at all from Impalak. One day, Intobu went fishing as usual. He used his small sampan and headed to the open water near the harbor. But then he saw a bagga heading to the harbor.
When the bagga was getting close to Intobu’s sampan, he saw a handsome young man standing in front of the bagga’s deck. The young man was accompanied by his beautiful wife. Intobu recognized the young man. He was Impalak, his son. “Impalak! Impalak, my son!” Intobu shout happily.
Impalak heard his father’s shouting, but he ignored him. “Honey, there’s someone down there calling your name. Is that your father?” asked his wife. “No, he’s not my father. Just ignore him, honey” Impalak was embarrassed to acknowledge his old father in front of his beautiful wife.
Intobu tried to row his sampan closer to the bagga, but suddenly there’s a big waves in the sea. Intobu’s sampan was hit by the waves and almost drowned. “Help… Help me… Impalak, help…!” Intobu was shouting, asking help from his son. But Impalak ignored his father. He even turned his bagga into the opposite direction from Intobu’s sampan.
Intobu’s heart was broken to see his son’s ignorance. His felling is mixed with sadness and anger. He looked into the sky and prayed, “Oh, God. Please hear my prayer. I curse that rebellious son’s bagga into stone.” Not long after Intobu said the prayer, a storm came and struck Impalak’s bagga. The wind blew so hard, pushing the bagga to the shore. Suddenly, the bagga and Impalak turned into stone. The stone still exist until now. People called it Batu Bagga (Bagga Stone).***

Cerita rakyat from Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam
The Parakeet King
Once upon a time, there was a group of parakeets in the forest. The parakeets group was led by a king. One day, their peaceful life was threatened by a hunter who planned to catch and sell them in the market. The hunter put some glues around the parakeet’s nests to trap them. Some parakeets and the parakeet king were trapped on the glues that the hunter set up before. They had tried to release themselves from the trap, but their efforts resulted nothing. All of them cried for help, except their king. “Relax my friends! This glue is put by the hunter. He wants to catch us alive. If we die, he will not bring us with him. I suggest we all pretend to be dead when he comes to take us tomorrow. When the hunter releases us from this trap, he will checks whether we still alive or not. If he thinks we are dead, he will leave us here. Please wait for my counting to one hundred, and then we will fly together,” the parakeet king said calmly. All parakeets agreed with the idea, “Good idea. Tomorrow we will pretend to be dead to free ourselves from the hunter.”
The hunter came in the next morning, and released those parakeets one by one from the trap. Finding all of them had not breathed, the hunter was very upset. The parakeets were left unattended in the ground, and the hunter walked home. But suddenly, the hunter slipped and felt down. Surprised by the accident, the pretending parakeets flied and scattered to all directions without waiting for the king‘s counting. The hunter realized that the parakeets had deceived him. But then he saw one bird was still on the ground. It was the parakeet king who was still pretending to be dead. "Gotcha!" he seized the parakeet king. “I’ll kill you,” said the hunter in his anger. “Forgive me, sir! Please do not kill me! Please release me,” the parakeet king asked for mercy. But the hunter replied angrily, “I will not release you. Your friends and you have fooled me. But I’ll not kill you if you promise to entertain me,” the hunter said. “Okay, sir. I’ll chirp for you everyday,” said the parakeet king agreed.
The hunter then brought the parakeet king to his home. He put the parakeet in a cage. The parakeet king chirped melodiously everyday to please the hunter. “Wonderful voice, luckily I didn’t kill him,” said the hunter. The news about the beautiful voice of the parakeet king was heard by the king of Aceh. The king decided to invite the hunter to come to his palace. The king intended to buy the parakeet.
At first, the hunter refused to sell the parakeet. “Oh my Majesty, I do not intend to go up against your wish to have this bird, but it is hard for me to hand over him to you,” said the hunter. “I would like to buy him with high price,” replied the king. After thought the price offered by the king for a while, the hunter finally said, “Oh my Majesty, if you really intend to have the bird, I would gladly sell it to you.” The king was delighted to hear the hunter‘s answer, and quickly paid him the amount of the promised money.
At the palace, the parakeet king was put in a golden cage. He was given so many delicious foods, but he still felt imprisoned. He wished that he could back home to the forest and could fly freely with his parakeet fellow. His sorrow made him sick. He stopped singing at all. “Why does my beloved bird stop chirping? Is he sick?” the king asked the guard. “My Majesty, I do not know exactly the causes. I have provided him with many delicious foods and taken care of him carefully, but he still keeps silent,” replied the guard. The king was so sad hearing the guard‘s explanation.
Meanwhile, in his golden cage, the parakeet king began to think a way to escape. He came up with an idea. “I will pretend to be dead as I had ever done before,” he said to himself. In the next morning he began to do his plan and imagined could fly freely. The palace guard who saw the condition of the parakeet king came to the king to tell the bad news. The king was very sad hearing the news, because the parakeet‘s beautiful twitter was no longer be heard. To express his love for the parakeet king, the king had his guards dug a cemetery for the dead parakeet.
The burial ceremony would be held with the kingdom tradition in the next morning. The parakeet was then taken out from the golden cage. Everybody thought that he had been dead. Suddenly, the parakeet king flied fast and high on the sky. All people were amazed seeing him, because they thought that he had died. The parakeet king got his freedom again, and flied directly to the forest.***


Cerita rakyat from Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam
Mentiko Betuah
A long time ago, there was a kingdom in Simeulue, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. The king and the queen had a son, Prince Rohib. They loved the prince very much and they always gave him anything he wanted. That’s why the prince grew as a spoiled young man. The prince was then sent to study in a school. The King told him to study seriously. But because the prince was used to be spoiled, he couldn’t finish his study in time. The King was so angry. He realized his mistake. He wanted to give the prince a lesson. He then ordered the prince to leave the palace and became a merchant. "I will give you some money. Use the money only for trading. Don't come back until you are rich!" said the king.
Prince Rohib was sad. He knew his father was angry with him because he was a spoiled boy. He then promised himself that he could become a great merchant. After he left the palace, he went to a village. While he was walking, he saw some kids were trying to shoot a bird using their slingshots. “Stop… Don't hurt the bird!” Rohib tried to stop the kids. “Hey, it’s none of your business,” replied one of the kids. “I'll give you some money if you stop hurting the bird," said Rohib. After that, he gave some money to those kids.
Later on his journey, Rohib saw some men were torturing a snake. Again, he asked them to stop hurting the snake. He also gave them some money. He kept on giving some money to people who tortured animals. Finally he ran out of money. He was so worried. He knew he could not become a merchant without any money in his pocket. He was also scared of going home. He knew that his father would be very angry at him.
The prince then went to the forest because he didn’t know anywhere to go. He was so tired, so he took some rest. While he was sitting under a big tree, a giant snake came to him. He was so scared. “Don't worry, young man. I will not eat you,” said the giant snake. “You…you can talk? Who are you?” Rohib asked. “I am the king of snakes in this jungle. I heard you helped many animals from being tortured. Now, I want to give you a gift. This is Mentiko Betuah. This magical stone can give you anything you want." Then the snake went deep into the forest. The prince was very happy. He asked the Mentiko Betuah to give him a lot of money. Then he went home and told his father that the money was from his business as a merchant.
Rohib kept the Mentiko Betuah carefully. He then went to a goldsmith and asked him to make the magical stone as a ring. But the goldsmith stole the Mentiko Betuah. Luckily Rohib had made friends to the animals. He asked a cat, a dog, and a mouse to help him find Mentiko Betuah. The dog followed the smell of the goldsmith, and they found his hideaway. However they could not enter his house because it was locked. Only the mouse was small enough to enter through a small hole in the door.
After waiting for a moment, the mouse came out of the house. He said he could not find the magical stone. After that they all went back to the palace. The cat and the dog did not know that the mouse actually had found the magical stone. He was hiding it in his mouth. The mouse then gave the Mentiko Betuah to the prince. Rohib was so happy and said that the mouse was the hero. The cat and the dog were jealous and angry. They knew that the mouse had tricked them. According to the local people, that’s why until now cats and dogs always tried to catch mice.***
Cerita rakyat from Bali
Kebo Iwa
Once upon a time in Bali, lived a wealthy man and his wife. They have been married for a long time but did not have any children. They prayed to God to give them a child. They prayed and prayed. God finally answered their pray. The wife got pregnant and they had a baby boy. They were very happy. The baby was extraordinary. He was very much different from other babies. He ate and drank a lot. Day after day he ate more and more. His body was getting bigger and bigger. And by the time he was a teenager, his body was as big as a buffalo. That’s why people called him Kebo Iwa, it means uncle buffalo. Because of his eating habit, Kebo Iwa’s parents spent a lot of money to buy his food. They finally went bankrupt. They had no other choice but to ask the villagers to help them provide the food.
The villagers then worked together to cook and build a big house for Kebo Iwa. He was like a giant. He could not stay in his parents’ house anymore because of his big body. After a few months, the villagers also couldn’t afford to cook him the food anymore. They then asked Kebo Iwa to cook his own food. The villagers just prepared the raw materials. Kebo Iwa agreed and as an expression of his gratitude to the villagers, he help built a dam, dug wells, and he also protected the villagers from animals and people who wanted to attack their village. It was easy task for him since he also had incredible strength.
Meanwhile, the kingdom of Majapahit was planning to attack Bali. They knew about Kebo Iwa. And they also knew that they could not conquer Bali with Kebo Iwa there. Kebo Iwa was more powerful than they were. The Maha Patih of Majapahit then planned something. They were pretending to invite Kebo Iwa to Majapahit to help them dig some wells. They said that Majapahit was suffering from a long dry season and needed water. Kebo Iwa did not know the plan, so he went to Majapahit to help them. When Kebo Iwa was busy digging a well, the Majapahit troops covered the well. Kebo Iwa had difficulty in breathing and buried alive. He died inside the well. After the death of Kebo Iwa, Bali was conquered by Majapahit. Until now, people still remember Kebo Iwa because he had done a lot for Bali.***

Cerita rakyat from Bali
Manik Angkeran
A long time ago, lived a rich man named Begawan Sidi Mantra. He was very famous for his kindness and also for his supernatural power. He had a son named Manik Angkeran who liked to gamble. Because of Manik Angkeran’s bad habit, his father soon bankrupt. Begawan Sidi Mantra had spent all of his money to pay his son‘s debts. But, Manik Angkeran still liked to gamble and he still owed some people a lot of money.
Begawan Sidi Mantra wanted to help his son to pay the remaining debts. He meditated for days, and finally he got a clue from the gods to go to Agung Mountain. He went to the mountain. There, he met with a dragon named Naga Besukih. It is said that Naga Besukih could provide gold and jewelries to those who could say a certain prayer and ring the sacred bell. Fortunately, Begawan Sidi Mantra had the bell, and he also knew the prayer from his meditation. “My name is Sidi Mantra. I have a problem. My son likes to gamble. I’ve spent all of my money to pay his debts, but it’s still not enough. I came here to ask for your help,” explained Begawan Sidi Mantra after he met with Naga Besukih. “I’ll help you, but you have to advise your son so he would not gamble again,” said Naga Besukih. The dragon then shakes his body and cause some of his scales fall of. Magically, the scales turn into gold and diamonds.
Begawan Sidi Mantra took the gold and diamonds and return home. He paid all the remaining debt and advised his son about his gambling habit. Manik Angkeran promised to stop gambling, but soon he broke the promise. Bagawan Sidi Mantra had to go to the dragon for help once again. “What brought you here again?” asked Naga Besukih. “I’m very sorry, Naga Besukih. My son had disappointed me; he broke his promise to me. I beg for your help once again,” said Begawan Sidi Mantra to the dragon. “I’ll help you, but this is the last time,” said Naga Besukih.
Begawan Sidi Mantra once again paid Manik Angkeran’s debts and advised him not to gamble again. Manik Angkeran promised and soon he broke his promise again. This time, Begawan Sidi Mantra didn’t want to help him anymore. He was too ashamed to meet with the dragon.
Manik Angkeran knew that his father got the jewelries from the dragon. So, he stole his father’s sacred bell and went to Agung Mountain. After he arrived, Manik Angkeran rang the bell. Naga Besukih heard the bell but there’s no prayer. He decided to see who was calling him. “Hey, Manik Angkeran. What are you doing here with your father’s bell? Did you steal it?” asked Naga Besukih angrily when he saw Manik Angkeran. “Please help me, Naga Besukih. I really need the money to pay my debts. Those people would kill me if I don’t pay them in time. Please, I beg for your mercy,” said Manik Angkeran to the dragon. “Okay, I’ll help you. But this is the last time, and you have to promise to stop gambling,” Naga Besukih then give him the jewelries.
But suddenly, Manik Angkeran had a bad idea. He wanted to kill the dragon and take all the jewelries. So he drew his keris and attacked Naga Besukih. He managed to cut the dragon’s tail, but he was no match for Naga Besukih. With his great power, Naga Besukih burned Manik Angkeran and killed him instantly.
In his home, Begawan Sidi Mantra couldn’t find his sacred bell. He knew that his son had stolen it, so he went to Agung Mountain. He was so sad when he found out what happened in the mountain. “I’m very sorry, Naga Besukih. But he was my only son. I beg you, please bring him back to life,” Begawan Sidi Mantra begged the dragon for mercy. Naga Besukih agreed with one condition, Manik Angkeran had to stay at Agung Mountain. Naga Besukih said some prayer and after few moments, Manik Angkeran lived again. Begawan Sidi Mantra then used a stick to make a big line between them on the ground. From the line, water flowed. Soon it became a river. Finally it became a strait. It separated Java and Bali. People then named the strait as Bali Strait.***

Cerita rakyat from Riau
Dang Gedunai
Long time ago in Riau, lived a kid named Dang Gedunai. He lived with his mother. Dang Gedunai was a stubborn kid. His mother was sad. Dang Gedunai was her only child but he never made her happy. One day, Dang Gedunai went to the river to catch some fish. “Mother, I want to go to the river. I want to go fishing,” said Dang Gedunai to his mother. “It’s cloudy outside. Rain will soon fall. Why don’t you just stay at home?” said his mother. As always Dang Gedunai ignored her. He then went to the river.
It was very cloudy when he arrived at the river. Soon it was drizzling, but Dang Gedunai was still busy fishing. Later rain fell down heavily. Dang Gedunai finally gave up. However right before he left, he saw something shining in the river. It was a very big egg. Dang Gedunai then brought the egg home.
His mother was surprised to see him brought a big egg. “What egg is that? Where did you find it?” she asked. “I found it in the river, Mother,” replied Dang Gedunai. “Be careful with the egg. It’s not yours. You should return it,” advised his mother. As always, Dang Gedunai ignored his mother’s advice. He planned to eat the egg even though his mother said not to.
In the morning, his mother was ready to go to the paddy field. Again, she advised Dang Gedunai to put the egg back to the river. Dang Gedunai did not say anything. When his mother left the house, he immediately boiled the egg. Then he ate it. It was so delicious. He was so full and suddenly he fell asleep. He had a dream. A giant dragon came to him in his dream. “Human, you stole my egg! For the punishment, you will become a dragon.”
Dang Gedunai woke up with fear. He was sweating. He felt very thirsty. Later his mother went home. She saw her son panicking. “What happened?” she asked. “I don’t know, Mother. Suddenly I feel very thirsty. My throat is like burning,” said Dang Gedunai. His mother then gave him a glass of water. It’s not enough. He drank another glass, and then another glass until there was not any water left in the house. His mother told him to go the pond. Dang Gedunai drank all the water until the pond was dried. But it was not enough. Then they went to the river.
Again it was not enough. Dang Gedunai knew his dream would come true. He would become a dragon. “Mother, please forgive me. I ignored you. I ate the egg. It was a dragon’s egg. I will change to a dragon. I cannot live with you anymore. I will live in the sea. If you see big waves in the sea, that means I’m eating. But if the waves are calmed, then it means I’m sleeping,” said Dang Gedunai.
Then Dang Gedunai left his mother. He headed for the sea. His mother couldn’t do anything to stop him. She just cried. Until now fishermen don’t want to go fishing in the sea when the waves are big. They know that the dragon is eating. They just wait until the dragon is finished eating and the waves are calmed.***
Cerita rakyat from Riau
The Greedy Man
Once upon a time in Riau, lived a pair of husband and wife. They were very poor. The wife was very diligent, while the husband was very lazy. He just slept and slept everyday. He did not want to help his wife to earn a living. The wife was helpless, she often prayed to God to help her husband.
One night the husband had a dream. In his dream, an old man came to him. He told the husband to take his sampan and went to river. "Go to the middle of the river and wait until a rope appears from the river. Take the rope slowly, and then you will find a golden chain. You can cut and take it, but don't take the chain too long," said the old man. The husband then woke up from his dream.
In the next day, the husband took his sampan and went to river. He wanted to do the old man's advice as said in his dream last night. "Where are you going?" asked the wife. She was so surprised to see her husband was busy preparing the sampan. "I want to go fishing, Honey. See you later!" the husband didn’t want to tell his wife about his dream. He knew his wife would think he was crazy by following up a dream.
After the husband arrived in the river, he rowed his sampan until he reached the middle of the river. He then looked around the water surface very carefully. Suddenly a rope appeared from the river. "The old man was right!" said the husband to himself. He then slowly pulled the rope and at the end of the rope he saw a golden chain! The chain was sparkling and glowing. It was made from pure gold. "Wow! It’s really made of gold. I’m rich. I’m rich," the husband said happily. He kept pulling the chain. He forgot the old man's advice to take only short chain because it was enough for him. The poor man became greedy. He wanted to take the golden chain as long as possible.
While he was busy pulling out the golden chain, a bird came to him. It talked, "Remember the old man's advice. Take only a short golden chain." But the poor man ignored the bird and kept on pulling out the chain. Slow but sure, his sampan was full of the golden chain. It was so full that finally the sampan could not hold the weight any more. The sampan started to drown. The golden chain was sinking and went to the bottom of the river creating a big wave in the river. The wave almost swallowed the poor man. He was so panicked. He swam as fast as possible to the river side.
When he arrived on the river side, he felt sorry to himself. He blamed himself for being a greedy man. But it was already too late. But then he realized that it was a lesson for him to work hard if he wanted to earn money.***


Cerita rakyat from Bangka-Belitung
The Blowpiper
Long time ago in a small village in Bangka Island, lived a young man who was an expert in using blowpipe, especially for hunting. That why people in the village called him the blowpiper. He also had excellent medical skill that was passed down from his late father. One day, the village chief Pak Raje came to the blowpiper’s house, asking him to chase away the fold of wild boars that entered and ruined his paddies. Pak Raje told the blowpiper that his father once owed him some money. Thus, the blowpiper should work for him voluntarily. The blowpiper took the job, though he would not be paid.
In the next day, the blowpiper went to Pak Raje‘s field. He watched the field and did some patrols to every side of the fields. He watched the field everyday, but he still not found any suspicious movements. Entering the seventh day of his work, the blowpiper noticed a suspicious movement from the far distance. He walked slowly to the source of voice where he saw a fold of boars trying to enter the field. The blowpiper then hid behind a big tree with a blowpipe in his hand. When the fold of boars ruined the paddies, the blowpiper pointed his blowpipe toward one of the boars that was closest to him. He blew his blowpipe. The dart hit the boar, but it didn’t paralyze the boar as the blowpiper expected. The fold of boars then runs outside the field and disappeared from the blowpiper‘s view. “Hmm... My dart had hit one of them, it must hurt it,” said the blowpiper curiously.
In the morning, the blowpiper went to follow the blood trail of the boar he shot last night. The trail led him to the forest and finally it ended in front of a big cave. Cautiously, the blowpiper entered the cave. He was surprised to found a beautiful lady bleeding on a soft bed, surrounded by some other beautiful ladies. One of them was an old lady, the mother of the fainted lady. “Who are you? What are you doing here?” asked the old lady. “I’m sorry to interrupt. I’m looking for my lost dart, it was stuck to a wild boar,” the blowpiper explained to the old lady. “The stuff you are looking for is on my daughter,” said the old lady angrily. “How come it is on your daughter?” asked the blowpiper surprised. “That’s because... the boar that you shot with your blowpipe last night is in fact my daughter‘s manifestation,” explained the old woman sadly.
The old woman‘s explanation surprised the blowpiper. “So..., all of you were the boars that I saw last night?” asked the young man. “What you have said is right young man,” answered the old woman softly. “I did not mean to…. I am so sorry to hear that. I would not do that if I knew that the boars were you,” the blowpiper apologized. “Never mind,” said the old woman. “Forget all about that. The most important thing right now is how to release the dart from my daughter‘s body,” added the old woman sadly. “I can help you with that,” said the blowiper. He came closer to the beautiful lady and uncovered the blanket. He then took out the dart from her body and with his medical skill he immediately stopped the bleeding.
In a short time, the wound recovered, leaving no traces. “Now, she has recovered. Let me go home now. May be we can meet again someday,” said the blowpiper politely. “Yes young man... But before you leave, I have something to give to you as my gratitude,” said the old lady while giving the blowpiper a wooden box. “Do not open the box until you’re in home,” added the old lady. “Thank you for your kindness,” said the blowpiper. He then left the cave and returned home. At his home, the blowpiper opened the wooden box. Surprisingly, the young man found jewelry, gold and diamonds inside the box. “Wow...! I’m rich,” murmured the young man happily.
In the next morning, the blowpiper sold all the precious stuff and used the money he got to purchase a field, garden, house, and paid all debt his father had owed to Pak Raje. The news about the blowpiper fortune quickly spread throughout the village. Everyone knew including Pak Raje. He intended to be like the blowpiper, so he went to borrow the blowpipe from the blowpiper to hunt a boar in his own field. On the way, he met with a boar, and shot it with the blowpipe. Then he followed the blood trail left by the boar until he entered the cave. It was like what happened with the blowpiper. Pak Raje was asked to cure the bleeding woman, but he could do that as he had no such skill. Suddenly, tens of boars attacked him, making him bleeding and seriously wounded. With all his strength, he escaped from the cave. He fainted when he finally arrived in front of his own house.
Pak Raje’s daughter informed what happened to her father to the blowpiper. Hearing the bad news, the blowpiper rushed to Pak Raje‘s house to help him. With his medical skill, he tried to cure Pak Raje’s injuries. Finally, Pak Raje could make it and recovered from his serious wounds. After thinking about what he had been through, Pak Raje realized his own bad intention. He felt sorry for being greedy. “Thank you, young man. You’ve help me once again. As my gratitude, I would like to appoint you as the next village chief. Would you accept?” asked Pak Raje. “Of course, Pak Raje. Thank you,” answered the blowpiper happily.
After a week, the blowpiper asked Pak Raje’s daughter to be his wife. They live happily as a couple. The blowpiper was a polite and kind person, and Pak Raje’s daughter was a beautiful woman. Under the leadership of the blowpiper, all the villagers lived in prosperous and harmony.***
Cerita rakyat from Nusa Tenggara Barat
Princess Mandalika
Once upon a time, there was a kingdom in Lombok Island that was ruled by a king named Raja Tonjang Beru. He was a wise king. He had a queen named Dewi Seranting. He also had a beautiful daughter named Princess Mandalika. It is said that princess Mandalika was the prettiest girl in the whole island. Everybody knew about Princess Mandalika’s beauty and kindness, even the people from other kingdom around the island.
Princes from all over the place wanted to marry her. One by one, they came to propose her. Princess Mandalika was a kind girl. She hated to make people sad. So, when those princes came to propose her, she was very confused. She could not decide, and she didn’t want to make them sad. She also didn’t want to cause a war to happen because of her.
To solve the problem, Raja Tonjang Beru then held a competition in Seger Kuta beach. He asked all the princes to take part in archery competition. The rule was simple; whoever shot the target perfectly will be accepted as Princess Mandalika’s future husband. One by one, all participants tried their best. After some time, there was no winner. All the participants were great in archery.
Because there was no a winner, all the participants started to argue. They claimed to be the best. The argument was getting hotter. Finally, they all were fighting. Soon, the fighting got bigger. It was like a war, because all the princes brought their soldiers in the archery competition. Princess Mandalika was really worried. She did not want the war to get bigger and hurt many people. Finally, she had an idea. "Everybody, listen up! I know you all love me and want me to be your wife. But I don't want you to fight because of me. And I don't want you to be sad either. I want you all to have me, but not as your wife. I want to be someone that everybody can have," said Princess Mandalika.
Raja Tonjang Beru and all other people in the beach did not understand what she meant. The king then came to her. But suddenly, Princess Mandalika jumped to the sea. She disappeared in the big waves. Everybody was surprised. It was chaos on the beach. All the princes tried to swim to find the princess, but they found nothing.
After several hours trying to search the princess, suddenly they found a lot of colorful sea worms on the beach. Raja Tonjang Beru then realized that his daughter had returned as sea worms. The worms were then called nyale. Until now, people in Lombok always try to catch nyale. Nyale is very delicious and that is why a lot of people come to Lombok to catch it. However, they can only find it once a year, in February or March. The tradition to catch the sea worms is called Bau Nyale.***

Cerita rakyat from Papua
Biwar and the Dragon
One day, the people from the village of Mimika were very busy. They prepared twelve boats and set off on a journey to find sago (traditional food of the people in the island of Papua). After three days, their boats were filled with sago. But on their way back to the village, they were attacked by a dragon. The dragon’s tail caused a big wave in the river. Most of the villagers were drown, but there’s a woman who managed to save herself. She was hanging to a tree log and finally arrives in a land.
The woman was the only survivor from the incident. She was pregnant. Her boat was broken so she couldn’t go back to the village. The woman then lived in the forest near the river. Later she gave birth to a son. She named her son Biwar. He grew up as a skillful hunter. He can make various weapons, set traps to catch animals, and provided sufficient food for both of them.
One day he brought some fish for their food. When his mother saw him bringing fish, she asked where Biwar got them. He said it was from the river. The mother was still afraid of the dragon, so she forbade Biwar to go near the river again. She also told him about his father and the villagers that were killed by the dragon, "Your father was killed by the dragon. I'm the only one survived from the incident. That's why we live alone here, Son."
Biwar then decided to hunt the dragon so that he and his mother could go back to the village. He set traps near the river. Then he made some noise by playing the tifa (traditional drums). Attracted by the noise, the dragon came to Biwar. When the dragon started to attack, Biwar pulled the rope that linked to his traps, releasing spears that hit the dragon’s head directly. The dragon died instantly.
Biwar then came to his mother and told her about the death of the dragon. The next day, he built a boat and set sail to return to the village. When they arrived in the village, all the people were so happy to hear the news about the dragon’s death. Thanks to Biwar, they are not afraid to sail in the river anymore.***



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